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10-04-2020 | Uitgave 9/2020 Open Access

Quality of Life Research 9/2020

Does the EQ-5D-5L benefit from extension with a cognitive domain: Testing a multi-criteria psychometric strategy in trauma patients

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 9/2020
A. J. L. M. Geraerds, Gouke J. Bonsel, Suzanne Polinder, M. J. M. Panneman, M. F. Janssen, Juanita A. Haagsma
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This study investigated the psychometric yield of extension of the EQ-5D-5L with a cognitive domain (EQ-5D+C) in a mixed cohort of trauma patients with repeated data.


A stratified sample of patients that presented at the emergency department filled out a follow-up survey 6 and 12 months after trauma. The surveys included the EQ-5D-5L+C, EQ-VAS, and the impact of events scale-revised (IES-R), a validated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) self-assessment scale. Generally, results of the EQ-5D and EQ-5D+C were compared. Psychometrics included the following: distributional features (ceiling/floor effects), discriminatory performance, convergent validity with the EQ-VAS as reference, and responsiveness to change. Psychometric properties were compared between predefined subgroups based on conditions with cognitive impact (Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)/PTSD).


In total, 1799 trauma patients responded 6 and 12 months after trauma, including 107 respondents with PTSD, and 273 with TBI. Six months post-trauma, ceiling of the EQ-5D (26.3%) was reduced with 2.2% with the additional cognitive domain. Using EQ-VAS as reference, convergent validity increased slightly with the addition of the cognitive domain: correlation increasing from 0.651 to 0.664. Cognitive level was found to slightly improve over time in TBI (delta: 0.04) and PTSD patients (delta: 0.05), while (almost) no change was found in patients without TBI and PTSD.


Adding a cognitive domain to the EQ-5D-5L slightly improved measurement properties and better captured change in health status for trauma patients with TBI and PTSD. Inclusion of the cognitive domain in the EQ-5D-5L when measuring in populations with cognitive problems should be considered.

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