Skip to main content


Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

18-03-2016 | Uitgave 8/2016

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 8/2016

Does the Environment Have an Enduring Effect on ADHD? A Longitudinal Study of Monozygotic Twin Differences in Children

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology > Uitgave 8/2016
Luisa T. Livingstone, William L. Coventry, Robin P. Corley, Erik G. Willcutt, Stefan Samuelsson, Richard K. Olson, Brian Byrne


Environmental factors play a key role in the development of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but the long-term effects of these factors are still unclear. This study analyses data from 1024 monozygotic (identical) twins in Australia, the United States, and Scandinavia who were assessed for ADHD in Preschool, Kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. Differences within each twin pair were used as a direct measure of non-shared environmental effects. The Trait-State-Occasion (TSO) model developed by Cole et al. (Psychological Methods, 10, 3–20, 2005) was used to separate the non-shared environmental effects into stable factors, and transient factors that excluded measurement error. Stable factors explained, on average, 44 % and 39 % of the environmental variance in hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive symptoms, respectively. Transient effects explained the remaining 56 % and 60 % of variance. The proportion of stable variance was higher than expected based on previous research, suggesting promise for targeted interventions if future research identifies these stable risk factors.

Log in om toegang te krijgen

Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:

BSL Psychologie Totaal

Met BSL Psychologie Totaal blijft u als professional steeds op de hoogte van de nieuwste ontwikkelingen binnen uw vak. Met het online abonnement heeft u toegang tot een groot aantal boeken, protocollen, vaktijdschriften en e-learnings op het gebied van psychologie en psychiatrie. Zo kunt u op uw gemak en wanneer het u het beste uitkomt verdiepen in uw vakgebied.

Over dit artikel

Andere artikelen Uitgave 8/2016

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 8/2016 Naar de uitgave