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Few studies have investigated nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) as a predictor of outcomes other than suicidal self-injury, severely limiting our understanding of this behavior’s full range of consequences. Three independent studies were used to examine the prospective association between NSSI and two outcomes: depressive symptoms and self-criticism. Data were collected from samples of (1) adults with past-month NSSI, (2) adults with lifetime NSSI, and (3) adults with past-year NSSI. Studies included 1- and 6-month follow-up periods. Results were tested in an internal meta-analysis. Results suggested that NSSI did not prospectively predict changes in self-criticism. No changes in depressive symptoms were seen over shorter follow-up periods; however, NSSI predicted increases in depressive symptoms at 6-month follow-up in one sample. The internal meta-analysis indicated a null relationship between NSSI and prospective internalizing symptoms. Future research should replicate these findings and examine a broader range of outcomes of NSSI to better understand its complex relationship to psychopathology.
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- Does Nonsuicidal Self-injury Prospectively Predict Change in Depression and Self-criticism?
Taylor A. Burke
Rachel L. Zelkowitz
Diana M. Y. Smith
Lauren B. Alloy
Jill M. Hooley
David A. Cole
- Springer US