Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies 9/2018

15-06-2018 | Original Research

Does Maternal Spanking Lead to Bullying Behaviors at School? A Longitudinal Study

Auteurs: Brie A. Turns, D. Scott Sibley

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies | Uitgave 9/2018

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Spanking as a form of punishment continues to be a highly prevalent form of discipline employed by parents in the U.S. to encourage compliance from children. Recent research continues to support that spanking does not lead to positive outcomes for children, and can be potentially detrimental in several different development facets. Bullying and the negative consequences for children and society has recently been an especially popular topic in the literature. Although much has been written and explored about implications of spanking, very few research studies have investigated the link of parental spanking on bullying behavior in young children. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of spanking and the likelihood of bullying behaviors in early childhood. Data for this study were used from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, consisting of 1020 mothers with young children was used collected at 4 different time points (Year 1, Year 3, Year 5, and Year 9). By utilizing structural equation modeling, we developed an autoregressive cross-lagged panel model to longitudinally test the connection between maternal spanking and childhood bullying. Our results indicated that spanking at age 1 positively predicted childhood bullying at age 3 for male children and negatively predicted bullying for females. Numerous autoregressive paths were statistically significant, indicating that maternal spanking at younger ages predicted spanking as the child aged. To gain further understanding our results were separated by the gender of the child. The results of the study have important implications for researchers, educators, and clinicians.
Literatuur
go back to reference Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms and profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth & Families. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms and profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth & Families.
go back to reference Altschul, I., Lee, S. J., & Gershoff, E. T. (2016). Hugs, not hits: Warmth and spanking as predictors of child social competence. Journal of Marriage and Family, 78(3), 695–714.CrossRef Altschul, I., Lee, S. J., & Gershoff, E. T. (2016). Hugs, not hits: Warmth and spanking as predictors of child social competence. Journal of Marriage and Family, 78(3), 695–714.CrossRef
go back to reference Baldry, A. C. (2003). Bullying in schools and exposure to domestic violence. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27, 713–732.CrossRef Baldry, A. C. (2003). Bullying in schools and exposure to domestic violence. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27, 713–732.CrossRef
go back to reference Bandura, A., & Walters, R. H. (1959). Adolescent aggression. New York: Ronald Press. Bandura, A., & Walters, R. H. (1959). Adolescent aggression. New York: Ronald Press.
go back to reference Barboza, G. E., Schiamberg, L. B., Oehmke, J., Korzeniewski, S. J., Post, L. A., & Heraux, C. G. (2009). Individual characteristics and the multiple contexts of adolescent bullying: an ecological perspective. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 101–121.CrossRefPubMed Barboza, G. E., Schiamberg, L. B., Oehmke, J., Korzeniewski, S. J., Post, L. A., & Heraux, C. G. (2009). Individual characteristics and the multiple contexts of adolescent bullying: an ecological perspective. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 101–121.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Benjet, C., & Kazdin, A. E. (2003). Spanking children: the controversies, findings, and new directions. Clinical Pscyhology Review, 23, 197–224.CrossRef Benjet, C., & Kazdin, A. E. (2003). Spanking children: the controversies, findings, and new directions. Clinical Pscyhology Review, 23, 197–224.CrossRef
go back to reference Berlin, L. J., Ispa, J. M., Fine, M. A., Malone, P. S., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Brady-Smith, C., et al. (2009). Correlates and consequences of spanking and verbal punishment for low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers. Child Development, 80(5), 1403–1420.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Berlin, L. J., Ispa, J. M., Fine, M. A., Malone, P. S., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Brady-Smith, C., et al. (2009). Correlates and consequences of spanking and verbal punishment for low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers. Child Development, 80(5), 1403–1420.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Bjorkvist, K., Lagerspetz, K. M. J., & Kaukiainen, A. (1992). Do girls manipulate and boys fight? Developmental trends in regard to direct and indirect aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 18, 117–127.CrossRef Bjorkvist, K., Lagerspetz, K. M. J., & Kaukiainen, A. (1992). Do girls manipulate and boys fight? Developmental trends in regard to direct and indirect aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 18, 117–127.CrossRef
go back to reference Bonanno, R., & Hymel, S. (2010). Beyond hurt feelings: investigating why some victims of bullying are at greater risk for suicidal ideation. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 56, 420–440.CrossRef Bonanno, R., & Hymel, S. (2010). Beyond hurt feelings: investigating why some victims of bullying are at greater risk for suicidal ideation. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 56, 420–440.CrossRef
go back to reference Card, N. A., Isaacs, J., & Hodges, E. V. E. (2007). Correlates of school victimization: implications for prevention and intervention. In J. E. Zins, M. J. Elias & C. A. Maher (Eds.), Bullying, victimization, and peer harassment: a handbook of prevention and intervention (pp. 339–366). New York, NY: Haworth Press. Card, N. A., Isaacs, J., & Hodges, E. V. E. (2007). Correlates of school victimization: implications for prevention and intervention. In J. E. Zins, M. J. Elias & C. A. Maher (Eds.), Bullying, victimization, and peer harassment: a handbook of prevention and intervention (pp. 339–366). New York, NY: Haworth Press.
go back to reference Chen, L., & Chen, Y. (2013). Prevalence of school bullying among secondary students in Taiwan: measurements with and without a specific definition of bullying. School Psychology International, 34(6), 707–720.CrossRef Chen, L., & Chen, Y. (2013). Prevalence of school bullying among secondary students in Taiwan: measurements with and without a specific definition of bullying. School Psychology International, 34(6), 707–720.CrossRef
go back to reference Cook, C. R., Williams, K. R., Guerra, N. G., Kim, T. E., & Sadek, S. (2010). Predicators of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: a meta-analytic investigation. School Psychology Quarterly, 25, 65–83.CrossRef Cook, C. R., Williams, K. R., Guerra, N. G., Kim, T. E., & Sadek, S. (2010). Predicators of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: a meta-analytic investigation. School Psychology Quarterly, 25, 65–83.CrossRef
go back to reference Cornell, D., Gregory, A., Huang, F., & Fan, X. (2013). Perceived prevalence of teasing and bullying predicts high school dropout. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(1), 138–149.CrossRef Cornell, D., Gregory, A., Huang, F., & Fan, X. (2013). Perceived prevalence of teasing and bullying predicts high school dropout. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(1), 138–149.CrossRef
go back to reference Craig, W. (1998). The relationship among bullying, victimization, depression, anxiety, and aggression in elementary school children. Personality and Individual Differences, 24, 123–130.CrossRef Craig, W. (1998). The relationship among bullying, victimization, depression, anxiety, and aggression in elementary school children. Personality and Individual Differences, 24, 123–130.CrossRef
go back to reference Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1995). Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment. Child Development, 66, 710–722.CrossRefPubMed Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1995). Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment. Child Development, 66, 710–722.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Dishion, T. J., & Patterson, G. R. (1999). Model building in developmental psychopathology: a pragmatic approach to understanding and intervention. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 28, 502–512. Dishion, T. J., & Patterson, G. R. (1999). Model building in developmental psychopathology: a pragmatic approach to understanding and intervention. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 28, 502–512.
go back to reference Durrant, J., & Ensom, R. (2012). Physical punishment of children: lessons from 20 years of research. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 184(12), 771–784.CrossRef Durrant, J., & Ensom, R. (2012). Physical punishment of children: lessons from 20 years of research. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 184(12), 771–784.CrossRef
go back to reference Ellis, W. E., & Wolfe, D. A. (2015). Bullying predicts reported dating violence and observed qualities in adolescent dating relationships. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(17), 3043–3064.CrossRefPubMed Ellis, W. E., & Wolfe, D. A. (2015). Bullying predicts reported dating violence and observed qualities in adolescent dating relationships. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(17), 3043–3064.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Espelage, D. L., & Swearer, S. M. (2010). A social-scological model for bullying prevention and intervention: understanding the impact of adults in the social ecology of youngsters. In S. R. Jimerson, S. M. Swearer & D. L. Espelage (Eds.), Handbook of bullying in schools: an international perspective (pp. 61–72). New York, NY: Routledge. Espelage, D. L., & Swearer, S. M. (2010). A social-scological model for bullying prevention and intervention: understanding the impact of adults in the social ecology of youngsters. In S. R. Jimerson, S. M. Swearer & D. L. Espelage (Eds.), Handbook of bullying in schools: an international perspective (pp. 61–72). New York, NY: Routledge.
go back to reference Ferguson, C. J. (2013). Spanking, corporal punishment and negative long-term outcomes: a meta-analytic review of longitudinal studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 196–208.CrossRefPubMed Ferguson, C. J. (2013). Spanking, corporal punishment and negative long-term outcomes: a meta-analytic review of longitudinal studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 196–208.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gershoff, E. T. (2002). Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviors and experiences: a meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 539–579.CrossRefPubMed Gershoff, E. T. (2002). Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviors and experiences: a meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 539–579.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gershoff, E. T. (2010). More harm than good: a summary of scientific research on the intended and unintended effects of corporal punishment on children. Law and Contemporary Problems, 73, 31–56. Gershoff, E. T. (2010). More harm than good: a summary of scientific research on the intended and unintended effects of corporal punishment on children. Law and Contemporary Problems, 73, 31–56.
go back to reference Gershoff, E. T., & Grogan-Kaylor, A. (2016). Spanking and child outcomes: old controversies and new meta-analyses. Journal of Family Psychology, 30(4), 453–469.CrossRefPubMed Gershoff, E. T., & Grogan-Kaylor, A. (2016). Spanking and child outcomes: old controversies and new meta-analyses. Journal of Family Psychology, 30(4), 453–469.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gini, G., & Pozzoli, T. (2013). Bullied children and psychosomatic problems: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 132, 720–729.CrossRefPubMed Gini, G., & Pozzoli, T. (2013). Bullied children and psychosomatic problems: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 132, 720–729.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Graham, G. W. (2009). Missing data analysis: making it work in the real world. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 549–579.CrossRefPubMed Graham, G. W. (2009). Missing data analysis: making it work in the real world. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 549–579.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Graham, S., & Juvonen, J. (1998). A social-cognitive perspective on peer aggression and victimization. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Annals of child development (pp. 23–70). London, UK: Jessica Kingsley. Graham, S., & Juvonen, J. (1998). A social-cognitive perspective on peer aggression and victimization. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Annals of child development (pp. 23–70). London, UK: Jessica Kingsley.
go back to reference Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. P. (2007). Electronic bullying among middle school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, s22–s30.CrossRefPubMed Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. P. (2007). Electronic bullying among middle school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, s22–s30.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Larzelere, R. E., & Kuhn, B. R. (2005). Comparing child outcomes of physical punishment and alternative disciplinary tactics: a meta-analysis. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 8, 1–37.CrossRefPubMed Larzelere, R. E., & Kuhn, B. R. (2005). Comparing child outcomes of physical punishment and alternative disciplinary tactics: a meta-analysis. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 8, 1–37.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lee, S. J., Altschul, I., & Gershoff, E. T. (2013). Does warmth moderate longitudinal associations between maternal spanking and child aggression in early childhood? Developmental Psychology, 49(11), 2017–2028.CrossRefPubMed Lee, S. J., Altschul, I., & Gershoff, E. T. (2013). Does warmth moderate longitudinal associations between maternal spanking and child aggression in early childhood? Developmental Psychology, 49(11), 2017–2028.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lee, S. J., Altschul, I., & Gershoff, E. T. (2015). Wait until your father gets home? Mother’s and father’s spanking and development of child aggression. Children and Youth Services Review, 52, 158–166.CrossRef Lee, S. J., Altschul, I., & Gershoff, E. T. (2015). Wait until your father gets home? Mother’s and father’s spanking and development of child aggression. Children and Youth Services Review, 52, 158–166.CrossRef
go back to reference MacKenzie, M. J., Nicklas, E., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Waldfogel, J. (2011). Who spanks infants and toddlers? Evidence from the fragile families and child well-being study. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(8), 1364–1373.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral MacKenzie, M. J., Nicklas, E., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Waldfogel, J. (2011). Who spanks infants and toddlers? Evidence from the fragile families and child well-being study. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(8), 1364–1373.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference MacKenzie, M. J., Nicklas, E., Waldfogel, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2013). Spanking and child development across the first decade of life. Pediatrics, 132(5), e1118–e1125.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral MacKenzie, M. J., Nicklas, E., Waldfogel, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2013). Spanking and child development across the first decade of life. Pediatrics, 132(5), e1118–e1125.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Matthews, K. A., Jennings, J. R., Lee, L., & Pardini, D. A. (2017). Bullying and being bullied in childhood are associated with different psychosocial risk factors for poor physical health in men. Psychological Science, 28(6), 808–821.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Matthews, K. A., Jennings, J. R., Lee, L., & Pardini, D. A. (2017). Bullying and being bullied in childhood are associated with different psychosocial risk factors for poor physical health in men. Psychological Science, 28(6), 808–821.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school what we know and what we can do. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell. Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school what we know and what we can do. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
go back to reference Pepler, D., Jiang, D., Craig, W., & Conolly, J. (2008). Developmental trajectories of bullying and associated factors. Child Development, 79(2), 325–338.CrossRefPubMed Pepler, D., Jiang, D., Craig, W., & Conolly, J. (2008). Developmental trajectories of bullying and associated factors. Child Development, 79(2), 325–338.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Reichman, N. E., Teitler, J. O., Garfinkel, I., & McLanahan, S. S. (2001). Fragile families: sample and design. Children and Youth Services Review, 23, 303–326.CrossRef Reichman, N. E., Teitler, J. O., Garfinkel, I., & McLanahan, S. S. (2001). Fragile families: sample and design. Children and Youth Services Review, 23, 303–326.CrossRef
go back to reference Rivers, I., & Smith, P. K. (1994). Types of bullying behavior and their correlates. Aggressive Behavior, 20, 359–368.CrossRef Rivers, I., & Smith, P. K. (1994). Types of bullying behavior and their correlates. Aggressive Behavior, 20, 359–368.CrossRef
go back to reference Sigurdson, J. F., Undheim, A. M., Wallander, J. L., Lydersen, S., & Sund, A. M. (2015). The long-term effects of being bullied or a bully in adolescence on externalizing and internalizing mental health problems in adulthood. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 9(42), 1–13. Sigurdson, J. F., Undheim, A. M., Wallander, J. L., Lydersen, S., & Sund, A. M. (2015). The long-term effects of being bullied or a bully in adolescence on externalizing and internalizing mental health problems in adulthood. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 9(42), 1–13.
go back to reference Slee, P.T., & Rigby, K. (1993). Australian school children's self-appraisal of interpersonal relations: the bullying experience. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 23(4), 273–282.CrossRefPubMed Slee, P.T., & Rigby, K. (1993). Australian school children's self-appraisal of interpersonal relations: the bullying experience. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 23(4), 273–282.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Swearer, S. M., & Hymel, S. (2015). Understanding the psychology of bullying: moving toward a social-ecological diathesis-stress model. American Psychologist, 70(4), 344–353.CrossRefPubMed Swearer, S. M., & Hymel, S. (2015). Understanding the psychology of bullying: moving toward a social-ecological diathesis-stress model. American Psychologist, 70(4), 344–353.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Taylor, C.A., Manganello, J.A., Lee, S.J., & Rice, J. (2010). Mother’s spanking of 3-year-old children and subsequent risk of children’s aggressive behavior. Pediatrics, 125(5), e-1057–e1065. Taylor, C.A., Manganello, J.A., Lee, S.J., & Rice, J. (2010). Mother’s spanking of 3-year-old children and subsequent risk of children’s aggressive behavior. Pediatrics, 125(5), e-1057–e1065.
go back to reference UNICEF. (2014). Hidden in plain sight: a statistical analysis of violence against children. New York, NY: UNICEF. UNICEF. (2014). Hidden in plain sight: a statistical analysis of violence against children. New York, NY: UNICEF.
go back to reference Zottis, G. H., Salum, G. A., Manfro, G. G., Isolan, L., & Heldt, E. (2013). Learning how to bully? Associations between parental punitive discipline and bullying behavior at school in adolescents. European Psychiatry, 28(Suppl. 1), 1.CrossRef Zottis, G. H., Salum, G. A., Manfro, G. G., Isolan, L., & Heldt, E. (2013). Learning how to bully? Associations between parental punitive discipline and bullying behavior at school in adolescents. European Psychiatry, 28(Suppl. 1), 1.CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Does Maternal Spanking Lead to Bullying Behaviors at School? A Longitudinal Study
Auteurs
Brie A. Turns
D. Scott Sibley
Publicatiedatum
15-06-2018
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Child and Family Studies / Uitgave 9/2018
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-018-1129-x

Andere artikelen Uitgave 9/2018

Journal of Child and Family Studies 9/2018 Naar de uitgave