Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
We explore paternal social anxiety as a specific risk factor for childhood social anxiety in a rational optimization model. In the course of human evolution, fathers specialized in external protection (e.g., confronting the external world) while mothers specialized in internal protection (e.g., providing comfort and food). Thus, children may instinctively be more influenced by the information signaled by paternal versus maternal behavior with respect to potential external threats. As a result, if fathers exhibit social anxiety, children interpret it as a strong negative signal about the external social world and rationally adjust their beliefs, thus becoming stressed. Under the assumption that paternal signals on social threats are more influential, a rational cognitive inference leads children of socially anxious fathers to develop social anxiety, unlike children of socially anxious mothers. We show in the model that mothers cannot easily compensate for anxious paternal behavior, but choose to increase maternal care to maintain the child’s wellbeing. We discuss research directions to test the proposed model as well as implications for the prevention and treatment of child social anxiety.
Bjorklund, D. F., & Shackelford, T. K. (1999). Differences in parental investment contribute to important differences between men and women. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8, 86–89. CrossRef
Bögels, S. M., Bamelis, L., & Van der Bruggen, C. (2008). Parental rearing as a function of parent’s own, partner’s, and child anxiety status: Fathers make the difference. Cognition and Emotion,22, 522–538. CrossRef
Bögels, S. M., & Stein, M. (2009). Social anxiety disorder; towards the DSM-V. American Psychiatric Associations Monographs.
Bögels, S. M., Stevens, J., & Majdandžić, M. (2010b). Parenting and social anxiety: Fathers’ versus mothers’ influence on their children’s anxiety in ambiguous social situations. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
Bögels, S. M., Van Dongen, L., & Muris, P. (2003). Family influences on dysfunctional thinking in anxious children. Infant and Child Development,12, 243–252. CrossRef
Bruggen, C. O., van der Stams, G. J. M., & Bögels, S. M. (2008). Parental control and parent and child anxiety: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry,49, 1257–1269. CrossRef
Buss, D. M. (1994). The evolution of desire. New York: Basic Books.
Byrnes, J. P., Miller, D. C., & Schafer, W. D. (1999). Gender differences in risk taking: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin,125, 367–383. CrossRef
Camus, J. L. (2003). Väter: Die Bedeuting des Vaters für die psychische Entwicklung des Kindes. Weinheim, Basel: Beltz Verlag.
Chorpita, B. F., Albano, A. M., & Barlow, D. H. (1996). Cognitive processes in children: Relation to anxiety and family influences. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology,25, 170–176. CrossRef
Clark, D. M., & Wells, A. (1995). A cognitive model of social phobia. In R. G. Heimberg, M. R. Liebowitz, D. A. Hope, & F. R. Schneier (Eds.), Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment (pp. 69–93). New York, London: Guilford.
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1991). The evolution of parental care. In J. R. Krebs & T. Clutton-Brock (Eds.), Monographs in behavior and ecology. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Cooper, P. J., Fearn, V., Willets, L., Seabrook, H., & Parkinson, M. (2006). Affective disorders in the parents of a clinical sample of children with anxiety disorders. Affective Disorders, 93, 205–212. CrossRef
Creswell, C., O’Connor, T. G., & Brewin, C. R. (2006). A longitudinal investigation of mother and child anxious cognitions. Cognitive Therapy and Research,30, 135–147. CrossRef
Ellis, B. J. (1992). The evolution of sexual attraction: Evaluative mechanisms in women. In J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. Oxford University Press.
Feinman, S., & Lewis, M. (1983). Social referencing at ten months: A second order effect on infants’ responses to strangers. Child Development,54, 878–887. PubMed
Feyer, A., Mannuzza, S., & Chapman, T. (1995). Specificity in familial aggregation of phobic disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry,52, 564–573.
Geary, D. C. (1998). Male, female: The evolution of human sex differences. Washington, DC: American psychological Association. CrossRef
Gilligan, C. (1987). Women’s place in men’s life cycle. In S. Harding (Ed.), Feminism and methodology. Social science issues. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Greco, L. A., & Morris, T. L. (2002). Paternal child-rearing style and child social anxiety: Investigation of child perceptions and actual father behavior. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment,24, 259–267. CrossRef
Hartman, L. M. (1983). A meta-cognitive model of social anxiety: Implications for treatment. Clinical Psychology Review,3, 435–456. CrossRef
Lamb, M. E. (1976). Interactions between two-year-olds and their mothers and fathers. Psychological Reports,38, 447–450.
Lamb, M. E. (1977). Father-infant and mother-infant interaction in the first year of life. Child Development,48, 167–181. CrossRef
Lamb, M. E. (1982). Paternal influences on early socio-emotional development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 23, 185−190. CrossRef
Lamb, M. E. (2000). The history of research on father involvement: An overview. Marriage and Family Review,29, 23–42. CrossRef
Lancaster, J. B., & Lancaster, C. S. (1987). The watershed: Change in parental investment and family formation strategies in the course of human evolution. In J. B. Lancaster, J. Altmann, et al. (Eds.), Parenting across the lifespan: Biosocial dimensions (pp. 187–205). Hawthorne: Aldine.
Levy, D. (1943). Maternal overprotection. New York: Columbia University Press.
McDowell, D. J., Parke, R. D., & Spitzer, S. (2002). Parent and child cognitive representations of social situations and children’s social competence. Social Development,11, 469–486. CrossRef
Paquette, D. (2004). Theorizing the father-child relationship: Mechanisms and developmental outcomes. Human Development,47, 193–219. CrossRef
Paquette, D., Carbonneau, R., Dubeau, D., Bigras, M., & Tremblay, R. E. (2003). Prevalence of father-child rough-and-tumble play and physical aggression in preschool children. European Journal of Psychology of Education,18, 171–189. CrossRef
Patterson, C. J. (1995). Families of the baby boom: Parents’ division of labor and children’s adjustment. Developmental Psychology,31, 115–123. CrossRef
Pleck, J. H. (1997). Paternal involvement: Levels, sources, and consequences. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development (3rd ed ed., pp. 66–103). New York: Whiley.
Rapee, R. M. (2000). Group treatment of children with anxiety disorders: Outcome and predictors of treatment response. Australian Journal of Psychology, 52, 125−129. CrossRef
Stein, M. B., Chartier, M. J., Hazen, A. Z., Kozak, M. V., Tancer, M. E., Lander, S., et al. (1998). A direct-interview family study of generalized social phobia. American Journal of Psychiatry,155, 90–97. PubMed
Thompson, R. A., & Limber, S. P. (1990). ‘Social anxiety’in infancy: Stanger and separation reactions. In H. Leitenberg (Ed.), Handbook of social and evaluation anxieties (pp. 85–137). New York: Plenum.
Williams, M., & Mattingley, J. (2006). Do angry men get noticed? Current Biology,16, 402–404. CrossRef
Zarbatany, L., & Lamb, M. (1985). Social referencing as a function of information source: Mothers versus strangers. Infant Behaviour and Development,8, 25–33. CrossRef
- Does Father Know Best? A Formal Model of the Paternal Influence on Childhood Social Anxiety
Susan M. Bögels
Enrico C. Perotti
- Springer US