Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 4/2022

09-08-2022

Does Child Anxiety Exacerbate or Protect Against Parent–Child Relationship Difficulties in Children with Elevated ADHD Symptoms?

Auteurs: Elizabeth S. M. Chan, Mariafernanda Macias, Michael J. Kofler

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment | Uitgave 4/2022

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Pediatric ADHD is associated with parent–child relationship difficulties. However, the extent to which these relations are attributable to specific ADHD symptom clusters (i.e., inattentive vs. hyperactive/impulsive), and the extent to which child anxiety symptoms may exacerbate or protect against these difficulties, remains unclear. To address these gaps in the literature, the current study combined multi-informant measures (parent, teacher, child) with a clinically-evaluated and carefully-phenotyped sample of 188 children with and without ADHD and anxiety (ages 8–13; 63 girls). Results indicated that child-reported anxiety (β = .46) and teacher-reported inattentive (β = .71) symptoms, and their interaction (β = -1.06), along with child age and IQ (β = -.14 to -.15), predict the extent to which parents perceive themselves as confident and competent parents (all p < .05). In contrast, only comorbid oppositional-defiant disorder conferred risk for increased parent-reported relational frustration, and we were unable to detect any reliable child-level demographic, diagnostic, or behavioral predictors of parent-reported discipline practices. These findings were robust to control for child demographic characteristics, clinical diagnoses, and intellectual functioning, with sensitivity analyses highlighting the importance of assessing ADHD inattentive vs. hyperactive/impulsive symptoms separately for understanding parenting outcomes. Taken together, the current findings suggest that child ADHD and anxiety symptoms may influence specific rather than broad-based aspects of the parent–child relationship, and produce differently valenced outcomes in the presence vs. absence of the other condition. Interestingly, it appears that the combination of greater child inattention and anxiety, rather than elevations in either symptom domain independently, predict adverse parenting outcomes in terms of reduced parental confidence.
Voetnoten
1
For completeness, we also re-ran these models while also including ADHD and Anxiety diagnostic categories. The pattern and interpretation of results was once again unchanged. Interestingly, child ADHD and anxiety diagnoses were not associated with any of the parenting variables assessed (all p > .12) despite the continuous measures of child ADHD and anxiety symptoms predicting parenting confidence as described above.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Chan, E. S. M., Groves, N. B., Marsh, C. L., Miller, C. E., Richmond, K. P., & Kofler, M. J. (2021a). Are there resilient children with ADHD? Journal of Attention Disorders. Chan, E. S. M., Groves, N. B., Marsh, C. L., Miller, C. E., Richmond, K. P., & Kofler, M. J. (2021a). Are there resilient children with ADHD? Journal of Attention Disorders.
go back to reference Chan, E. S. M., Shero, J. A., Hand, E. D., Condo, J. S., Macias, M., & Kofler, M. J. (2021b). A meta-analytic review of reading intervention treatment effects for ADHD. Poster at the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) Biennial Meeting, Virtual Convention. Chan, E. S. M., Shero, J. A., Hand, E. D., Condo, J. S., Macias, M., & Kofler, M. J. (2021b). A meta-analytic review of reading intervention treatment effects for ADHD. Poster at the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) Biennial Meeting, Virtual Convention.
go back to reference DuPaul, G. J., Power, T. J., Anastopoulos, A. D., & Reid, R. (2016). ADHD rating scale-5 for children and adolescents: Checklists, norms, and clinical interpretation. The Guilford Press. DuPaul, G. J., Power, T. J., Anastopoulos, A. D., & Reid, R. (2016). ADHD rating scale-5 for children and adolescents: Checklists, norms, and clinical interpretation. The Guilford Press.
go back to reference Fergusson, D. M., Lynskey, M. T., & Horwood, L. J. (1997). Attentional difficulties in middle childhood and psychosocial outcomes in young adulthood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 633–644.CrossRefPubMed Fergusson, D. M., Lynskey, M. T., & Horwood, L. J. (1997). Attentional difficulties in middle childhood and psychosocial outcomes in young adulthood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 633–644.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. -G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 175–191. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03193146 Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. -G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 175–191. https://​doi.​org/​10.​3758/​BF03193146
go back to reference Forgas, J. P., & Laham, S. M. (2016). Halo effects. In R. F. Pohl (Ed.), Cognitive illusions: Intriguing phenomena in judgement, thinking and memory (2nd ed., pp. 276–290). Psychology Press. Forgas, J. P., & Laham, S. M. (2016). Halo effects. In R. F. Pohl (Ed.), Cognitive illusions: Intriguing phenomena in judgement, thinking and memory (2nd ed., pp. 276–290). Psychology Press.
go back to reference Greco, L. A. (2000). Dads do matter: Relationship between father-child interaction and child social anxiety [Unpublished master’s thesis]. West Virginia University. Greco, L. A. (2000). Dads do matter: Relationship between father-child interaction and child social anxiety [Unpublished master’s thesis]. West Virginia University.
go back to reference Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four factor index of social status. Department of Sociology, Yale University. Unpublished working paper. Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four factor index of social status. Department of Sociology, Yale University. Unpublished working paper.
go back to reference Kamphaus, R. W., & Reynolds, C. R. (2015). BASC-3 PRQ: Parenting relationship questionnaire manual. NCS Pearson. Kamphaus, R. W., & Reynolds, C. R. (2015). BASC-3 PRQ: Parenting relationship questionnaire manual. NCS Pearson.
go back to reference Lewallen, A. C., & Neece, C. L. (2015). Improved social skills in children with developmental delays after parent participation in MBSR: The role of parent–child relational factors. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(10), 3117–3129.CrossRef Lewallen, A. C., & Neece, C. L. (2015). Improved social skills in children with developmental delays after parent participation in MBSR: The role of parent–child relational factors. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(10), 3117–3129.CrossRef
go back to reference Loren, R. E. A., Vaughn, A. J., Lanberg, J. M., Cyran, J. E. M., Proano-Raps, T., Smolyansky, B. H., Tamm, L., & Epstein, J. N. (2015). Effects of an 8-session behavioral parent training group for parents of children with ADHD on child impairment and parenting confidence. Journal of Attention Disorders, 19(2), 158–166. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054713484175CrossRefPubMed Loren, R. E. A., Vaughn, A. J., Lanberg, J. M., Cyran, J. E. M., Proano-Raps, T., Smolyansky, B. H., Tamm, L., & Epstein, J. N. (2015). Effects of an 8-session behavioral parent training group for parents of children with ADHD on child impairment and parenting confidence. Journal of Attention Disorders, 19(2), 158–166. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1177/​1087054713484175​CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference March, J. S. (2013). Multidimensional anxiety scale for children: Technical manual (2nd ed.). Multi-Health Systems. March, J. S. (2013). Multidimensional anxiety scale for children: Technical manual (2nd ed.). Multi-Health Systems.
go back to reference Newcorn, J. H., Halperin, J. M., Jensen, P. S., Abikoff, H. B., Arnold, L. E., Cantwell, D. P., Conners, C. K., Elliott, G. R., Epstein, J. N., Greenhill, L. L., Hechtman, L., Hinshaw, S. P., Hoza, B., Kraemer, H. C., Pelham, W. E., Severe, J. B., Swanson, J. M., Wells, K. C., Wigal, T., & Vitiello, B. (2001). Symptom profiles in children with ADHD: Effects of comorbidity and gender. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(2), 137–146. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200102000-00008CrossRefPubMed Newcorn, J. H., Halperin, J. M., Jensen, P. S., Abikoff, H. B., Arnold, L. E., Cantwell, D. P., Conners, C. K., Elliott, G. R., Epstein, J. N., Greenhill, L. L., Hechtman, L., Hinshaw, S. P., Hoza, B., Kraemer, H. C., Pelham, W. E., Severe, J. B., Swanson, J. M., Wells, K. C., Wigal, T., & Vitiello, B. (2001). Symptom profiles in children with ADHD: Effects of comorbidity and gender. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(2), 137–146. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1097/​00004583-200102000-00008CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Nigg, J. T., & Barkley, R. A. (2014). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In E. J. Mash & R. A. Barkley (Eds), Child psychopathology (3rd ed., pp. 75–144). The Guilford Press. Nigg, J. T., & Barkley, R. A. (2014). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In E. J. Mash & R. A. Barkley (Eds), Child psychopathology (3rd ed., pp. 75–144). The Guilford Press.
go back to reference Rubinic, D., & Schwickrath, H. (2010). Test review: Kamphaus, RW, & Reynolds, CR (2006). Parenting Relationship Questionnaire. Minneapolis, MN: NCS Pearson. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 28(3), 270–275. Rubinic, D., & Schwickrath, H. (2010). Test review: Kamphaus, RW, & Reynolds, CR (2006). Parenting Relationship Questionnaire. Minneapolis, MN: NCS Pearson. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment28(3), 270–275.
go back to reference Sattler, J., Dumont, R., & Coalson, D. (2016). Assessment of Children: WISC-V and WPPSI-IV. Sattler Press. Sattler, J., Dumont, R., & Coalson, D. (2016). Assessment of Children: WISC-V and WPPSI-IV. Sattler Press.
go back to reference Snyder, H. R. (2013). Major depressive disorder is associated with broad impairments on neuropsychological measures of executive function: A meta-analysis and review. Psychological Bulletin, 139(1), 81. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028727 Snyder, H. R. (2013). Major depressive disorder is associated with broad impairments on neuropsychological measures of executive function: A meta-analysis and review. Psychological Bulletin139(1), 81. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1037/​a0028727
go back to reference Tripp, G., Schaughency, E. A., & Clarke, B. (2006). Parent and teacher rating scales in the evaluation of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Contribution to diagnosis and differential diagnosis in clinically referred children. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 27(3), 209–218. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004703-200606000-00006CrossRef Tripp, G., Schaughency, E. A., & Clarke, B. (2006). Parent and teacher rating scales in the evaluation of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Contribution to diagnosis and differential diagnosis in clinically referred children. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 27(3), 209–218. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1097/​00004703-200606000-00006CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Does Child Anxiety Exacerbate or Protect Against Parent–Child Relationship Difficulties in Children with Elevated ADHD Symptoms?
Auteurs
Elizabeth S. M. Chan
Mariafernanda Macias
Michael J. Kofler
Publicatiedatum
09-08-2022
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment / Uitgave 4/2022
Print ISSN: 0882-2689
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3505
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-021-09922-y

Andere artikelen Uitgave 4/2022

Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 4/2022 Naar de uitgave