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Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research 6/2020

14-07-2020 | Original Article

Does Approach-Avoidance Behavior in Response to Ambiguous Cues Reflect Depressive Interpretation Bias? Related but Distinct

Auteurs: Xiao-Xiao Lin, Shang-Wen Si, Rui-Rui Gao, Ya-Bin Sun, Yu-Zheng Wang, Ning Wang, Fei Luo, Jin-Yan Wang

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 6/2020

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Abstract

Background

There has been a recent surge of interest in the development of the Judgement Bias Test (JBT) as a translational assay and objective measure of depressive interpretation bias. Judgement bias, namely the tendency of favoring an approach/avoidance response towards ambiguous cues, is thought to reflect a biased interpretation or anticipation of the cues. However, no study has examined the relationship between judgement bias and depressive interpretation bias.

Methods

We validated the JBT against established measurements of interpretation bias in a college sample (Study 1) and an adolescent sample (Study 2).

Results

In both samples, a negative judgement bias was significantly associated with a depressive interpretation bias. However, the strength of the associations was only moderate and failed to meet the minimum qualification of convergent validity.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that judgement bias and interpretation bias might be related but distinct. The JBT should not be used as an indirect assessment of interpretation bias in its current form, and it would be premature to claim that animal studies using the JBT could inform our understanding of cognitive biases in mood disorders. Nevertheless, the JBT might be useful for studying specific mechanisms, such as reward processing under ambiguity.
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Voetnoten
1
Some previous studies did adopt visual variants of the JBT. For example, in Paul et al. (2011), the participants were asked to judge whether a cross (×) presented on a horizontal line was in a position nearer the “positive” end or the “negative” end of the line. However, the performance on this task is likely to be affected by the individual difference in line bisection bias, a behavioral proxy of approach motivation and relative cerebral asymmetry (e.g. Nash et al. 2010), which may confound the results.
 
2
Due to the number of correlations, we applied the Bonferroni correction to the observed p-values so that the alpha level was kept at 0.05: corrected p-value = observed p-value × 21 (number of correlations).
 
3
We initially chose a cutoff score of 4 for the CDI-S in accordance with (Allgaier et al. 2012) to achieve an acceptable sensitivity (77%) and specificity (82%). However, during the peer review process, it has come to our attention that this criterion was inadequate for our community sample because the cutoff recommended by Allgaier et al. (2012) was based on a clinically referred sample. Therefore, we switched to the current cutoff score recommended for community samples that is widely used in Chinese populations (e.g., Guo et al. 2015). This should not change our main results as depression was treated as a continuous variable rather than a categorical variable in the present studies.
 
4
The original AST-DA by Faith Orchard is licensed under CC BY 3.0 by the University of Reading. In this study, the short form of the AST-DA (Orchard et al. 2018) was translated into Chinese by a senior psychology doctoral student (first author) and a licensed counselling psychologist (second author). A copy of the Chinese translation can be obtained by writing to the first author linxx@psych.ac.cn upon reasonable request.
 
5
A mean score greater than, equal to, or less than five indicates a positive bias, no bias, and a negative bias, respectively.
 
6
As in Study 1, we applied the Bonferroni correction to the observed p-values so that the alpha level was kept at 0.05: corrected p-value = observed p-value × 18 (number of correlations).
 
7
We conducted a supplementary signal detection analysis to compute the perceptual sensitivity (the ability to discriminate the rewarding cue and the punishing cue) for each participant. In both samples, the perceptual sensitivity was weakly correlated with the PSE (college sample: r = − 0.18, p < 0.05; adolescent sample: r = − 0.25, p < 0.01) but not the judgement bias raw score (|r|s < 0.03, p > 0.58). These results are inconclusive to determine whether perceptual accuracy affects judgement bias.
 
8
Although both the SST and the JBT are cognitively demanding, it seems that the SST is more demanding in working memory (given the load task) while the JBT is more demanding in sustained attention (given that it consists of far more trials). Clearly, cognitive demand in the SST is likely to have a greater impact on elaborations as it interferes with the working memory capacity, and deliberate response strategies (e.g., thought suppression) greatly rely on the working memory capacity (Brewin and Beaton 2002).
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Does Approach-Avoidance Behavior in Response to Ambiguous Cues Reflect Depressive Interpretation Bias? Related but Distinct
Auteurs
Xiao-Xiao Lin
Shang-Wen Si
Rui-Rui Gao
Ya-Bin Sun
Yu-Zheng Wang
Ning Wang
Fei Luo
Jin-Yan Wang
Publicatiedatum
14-07-2020
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 6/2020
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-020-10133-0

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