Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 3/2009

01-03-2009 | Original Paper

Do Faces Capture the Attention of Individuals with Williams Syndrome or Autism? Evidence from Tracking Eye Movements

Auteurs: Deborah M. Riby, Peter J. B. Hancock

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 3/2009

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

The neuro-developmental disorders of Williams syndrome (WS) and autism can reveal key components of social cognition. Eye-tracking techniques were applied in two tasks exploring attention to pictures containing faces. Images were (i) scrambled pictures containing faces or (ii) pictures of scenes with embedded faces. Compared to individuals who were developing typically, participants with WS and autism showed atypicalities of gaze behaviour. Individuals with WS showed prolonged face gaze across tasks, relating to the typical WS social phenotype. Participants with autism exhibited reduced face gaze, linking to a lack of interest in socially relevant information. The findings are interpreted in terms of wider issues regarding socio-cognition and attention mechanisms.
Voetnoten
1
Note that no participants received a negative FISH test. When the two participants who were diagnosed phenotypically, but not genetically, were removed from the analysis there was no change in the reported results pattern.
 
2
It is not ideal to remove these participants from the analysis; however, taking an alternative approach and inserting the maximum time allowed to view each image (5000msec) for each trial would skew the data and exaggerate group differences reported here, whilst rendering the interpretation less meaningful.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
go back to reference Bellugi, U., Lichtenberg, L., Jones, W., Lai, Z., & St. George, R. (2000). The neurocognitive profile of Williams syndrome: A complex pattern of strengths and weaknesses. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12, 7–29. doi: 10.​1162/​089892900561959. PubMedCrossRef Bellugi, U., Lichtenberg, L., Jones, W., Lai, Z., & St. George, R. (2000). The neurocognitive profile of Williams syndrome: A complex pattern of strengths and weaknesses. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12, 7–29. doi: 10.​1162/​089892900561959. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Brock, J., Einav, S., & Riby, D. M. (2008). The other end of the spectrum? Social cognition in Williams syndrome. In V. Reid & T. Striano (Eds.), Social cognition: Development, neuroscience, and autism. Oxford: Blackwell. Brock, J., Einav, S., & Riby, D. M. (2008). The other end of the spectrum? Social cognition in Williams syndrome. In V. Reid & T. Striano (Eds.), Social cognition: Development, neuroscience, and autism. Oxford: Blackwell.
go back to reference Cerf, M., Harel, J., Einhauser, W., & Koch, C. (2008). Predicting human gaze using low-level saliency combined with face detection. In J. C. Platt, D. Koller, Y. Singer, & S. Roweis (Eds.), Advances in neural information processing systems. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Cerf, M., Harel, J., Einhauser, W., & Koch, C. (2008). Predicting human gaze using low-level saliency combined with face detection. In J. C. Platt, D. Koller, Y. Singer, & S. Roweis (Eds.), Advances in neural information processing systems. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
go back to reference Dalton, K. M., Nacewicz, B. M., Johnstone, T., Schaefer, H. S., Gernsbacher, M. A., Goldsmith, H. H., et al. (2005). Gaze fixation and the neural circuitry of face processing in autism. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 519–526. PubMed Dalton, K. M., Nacewicz, B. M., Johnstone, T., Schaefer, H. S., Gernsbacher, M. A., Goldsmith, H. H., et al. (2005). Gaze fixation and the neural circuitry of face processing in autism. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 519–526. PubMed
go back to reference Doherty-Sneddon, G., Riby, D. M., Calderwood, L., & Ainsworth, L. (submitted). The impact of the eyes. Evidence from William’s Syndrome. Doherty-Sneddon, G., Riby, D. M., Calderwood, L., & Ainsworth, L. (submitted). The impact of the eyes. Evidence from William’s Syndrome.
go back to reference Doyle, T. F., Bellugi, U., Korenberg, J. R., & Graham, J. (2004). “Everybody in the world is my friend”: Hypersociability in young children with Williams syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 124, 263–273. doi: 10.​1002/​ajmg.​a.​20416. CrossRef Doyle, T. F., Bellugi, U., Korenberg, J. R., & Graham, J. (2004). “Everybody in the world is my friend”: Hypersociability in young children with Williams syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 124, 263–273. doi: 10.​1002/​ajmg.​a.​20416. CrossRef
go back to reference Fletcher-Watson, S., Leekam, S. R., Findlay, J. M., & Stanton, E. C. (2008). Young adults with autism spectrum disorder show normal attention to eye-gaze information—Evidence from a new change blindness paradigm. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi: 10.​1007/​s10803-008-0548-8. Fletcher-Watson, S., Leekam, S. R., Findlay, J. M., & Stanton, E. C. (2008). Young adults with autism spectrum disorder show normal attention to eye-gaze information—Evidence from a new change blindness paradigm. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi: 10.​1007/​s10803-008-0548-8.
go back to reference Fletcher-Watson, S., Leekam, S. R., Turner, M. A., & Moxon, L. (2006). Do people with autistic spectrum disorder show normal selection for attention? Evidence from change blindness. The British Journal of Psychology, 97, 537–554. doi: 10.​1348/​000712606X114057​. CrossRef Fletcher-Watson, S., Leekam, S. R., Turner, M. A., & Moxon, L. (2006). Do people with autistic spectrum disorder show normal selection for attention? Evidence from change blindness. The British Journal of Psychology, 97, 537–554. doi: 10.​1348/​000712606X114057​. CrossRef
go back to reference Frith, U. (1989). Autism: Explaining the enigma. Oxford: Blackwell. Frith, U. (1989). Autism: Explaining the enigma. Oxford: Blackwell.
go back to reference Goodman, R. (2001). Psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1337–1345. Goodman, R. (2001). Psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1337–1345.
go back to reference Gosch, A., & Pankau, R. (1997). Personality characteristics and behaviour problems in individuals of different ages with Williams syndrome. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 39, 527–533. PubMed Gosch, A., & Pankau, R. (1997). Personality characteristics and behaviour problems in individuals of different ages with Williams syndrome. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 39, 527–533. PubMed
go back to reference Hooge, I. T. C., & Eerkelens, C. J. (1996). Control of fixation duration in a simple search task. Perception & Psychophysics, 58, 969–976. Hooge, I. T. C., & Eerkelens, C. J. (1996). Control of fixation duration in a simple search task. Perception & Psychophysics, 58, 969–976.
go back to reference Jacobs, A. M. (1986). Eye-movement control in visual search: How direct is visual span control? Perception & Psychophysics, 39, 47–58. Jacobs, A. M. (1986). Eye-movement control in visual search: How direct is visual span control? Perception & Psychophysics, 39, 47–58.
go back to reference Jones, W., Bellugi, U., Lai, Z., Chiles, M., Reilly, J., Lincoln, A., et al. (2000). Hypersociability: The social and affective phenotype of Williams syndrome. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12, 30–46. doi: 10.​1162/​089892900561968. PubMedCrossRef Jones, W., Bellugi, U., Lai, Z., Chiles, M., Reilly, J., Lincoln, A., et al. (2000). Hypersociability: The social and affective phenotype of Williams syndrome. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12, 30–46. doi: 10.​1162/​089892900561968. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Karmiloff-Smith, A., Thomas, M., Annaz, D., Humphreys, K., Ewing, S., Brace, N., et al. (2004). Exploring the Williams syndrome face processing debate: The importance of building developmental trajectories. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 45, 1258–1274. doi: 10.​1111/​j.​1469-7610.​2004.​00322.​x. CrossRef Karmiloff-Smith, A., Thomas, M., Annaz, D., Humphreys, K., Ewing, S., Brace, N., et al. (2004). Exploring the Williams syndrome face processing debate: The importance of building developmental trajectories. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 45, 1258–1274. doi: 10.​1111/​j.​1469-7610.​2004.​00322.​x. CrossRef
go back to reference Morris, C. A., & Mervis, C. B. (1999). Williams syndrome. In C. R. Reynolds & S. Goldstein (Eds.), Handbook of neurodevelopmental and genetic disorders in children. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Morris, C. A., & Mervis, C. B. (1999). Williams syndrome. In C. R. Reynolds & S. Goldstein (Eds.), Handbook of neurodevelopmental and genetic disorders in children. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Pollatsek, A., Rayner, K., & Balota, D. A. (1986). Inferences about eye movement control from the perceptual span in reading. Perception & Psychophysics, 40, 123–130. Pollatsek, A., Rayner, K., & Balota, D. A. (1986). Inferences about eye movement control from the perceptual span in reading. Perception & Psychophysics, 40, 123–130.
go back to reference Purcell, D. G., & Stewart, A. L. (1986). The face-detection effect. Bulletin of the Psychomonic Society, 24, 118–120. Purcell, D. G., & Stewart, A. L. (1986). The face-detection effect. Bulletin of the Psychomonic Society, 24, 118–120.
go back to reference Raven, J. C., Court, J. H., & Raven, J. (1990). Raven’s coloured progressive matrices. Oxford: Oxfords Psychologists Press. Raven, J. C., Court, J. H., & Raven, J. (1990). Raven’s coloured progressive matrices. Oxford: Oxfords Psychologists Press.
go back to reference Riby, D. M., & Hancock, P. J. B. (submitted). Looking at movies and cartoons: Eye-tracking evidence from Williams syndrome and Autism. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. Riby, D. M., & Hancock, P. J. B. (submitted). Looking at movies and cartoons: Eye-tracking evidence from Williams syndrome and Autism. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research.
go back to reference Schopler, E., Rechler, R. J., & Rochen Renner, B. R. (1988). The childhood autism rating scale. LA: Western Psychological Services. Schopler, E., Rechler, R. J., & Rochen Renner, B. R. (1988). The childhood autism rating scale. LA: Western Psychological Services.
go back to reference Swettenham, J., Baron-Cohen, S., Charman, T., Cox, A., Baird, G., Drew, A., et al. (1998). The frequency and distribution of spontaneous attention shifts between social and non-social stimuli in autistic, typically developing and non-autistic developmentally delayed infants. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 39, 747–753. doi: 10.​1017/​S002196309800259​5. CrossRef Swettenham, J., Baron-Cohen, S., Charman, T., Cox, A., Baird, G., Drew, A., et al. (1998). The frequency and distribution of spontaneous attention shifts between social and non-social stimuli in autistic, typically developing and non-autistic developmentally delayed infants. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 39, 747–753. doi: 10.​1017/​S002196309800259​5. CrossRef
go back to reference Tager-Flusberg, H., Plesa Skwerer, D., & Joseph, R. M. (2006). Model syndromes for investigating social cognitive and affective neuroscience: A comparison of autism and Williams syndrome. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 1, 175–182. doi: 10.​1093/​scan/​nsl035. PubMedCrossRef Tager-Flusberg, H., Plesa Skwerer, D., & Joseph, R. M. (2006). Model syndromes for investigating social cognitive and affective neuroscience: A comparison of autism and Williams syndrome. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 1, 175–182. doi: 10.​1093/​scan/​nsl035. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference van der Geest, J. N., Kemner, C., Verbaten, M. N., & van Engeland, H. (2002). Gaze behaviour of children with pervasive developmental disorder toward human faces: A fixation time study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 43, 669–678. doi: 10.​1111/​1469-7610.​00055. CrossRef van der Geest, J. N., Kemner, C., Verbaten, M. N., & van Engeland, H. (2002). Gaze behaviour of children with pervasive developmental disorder toward human faces: A fixation time study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 43, 669–678. doi: 10.​1111/​1469-7610.​00055. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Do Faces Capture the Attention of Individuals with Williams Syndrome or Autism? Evidence from Tracking Eye Movements
Auteurs
Deborah M. Riby
Peter J. B. Hancock
Publicatiedatum
01-03-2009
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 3/2009
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-008-0641-z

Andere artikelen Uitgave 3/2009

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 3/2009 Naar de uitgave