Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The current study tested the hypothesis that early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) mediate the relationship between retrospectively reported childhood experiences and avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) symptoms. One hundred and seventy-eight non-clinical participants completed questionnaires measuring retrospectively reported childhood experiences, a measure of EMSs, and AVPD symptoms. Path analyses showed that the EMSs of subjugation, abandonment, and emotional inhibition fully mediated the relationship between retrospectively reported childhood experiences (specifically mother overprotection & family sociability) and AVPD symptoms. The abandonment and subjugation EMSs were found to fully mediate the relationship between family sociability and AVPD symptoms while the subjugation and emotional inhibition EMSs fully mediated the relationship between mother (but not father) overprotection and AVPD symptoms. Finally, retrospective reports of childhood maltreatment were found to be associated with all EMSs within the disconnection/rejection domain apart from the abandonment EMS although these EMSs did not significantly account for AVPD symptoms. These results are consistent with cognitive-behavioural formulations of personality disorders and this study is the first to show that EMSs mediate the relationship between childhood factors and AVPD features.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
APA. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
APA. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th text revision ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.
Bagby, M., & Farvolden, P. (2003). The personality diagnostic questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4). In M. J. Hilsenroth, D. L. Segal, & M. Hersen (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychological assessment: volume 2, Personality assessment (pp. 122–133). USA: Wiley.
Battle, C. L., Shea, T., Johnson, D. M., Yen, S., Zlotnick, C., Zanarini, M., et al. (2004). Childhood maltreatment associated with adult personality disorders: Findings from the collaborative longitudinal personality disorder study. Journal of Personality Disorders, 18(2), 193–211. doi: 10.1521/pedi.184.108.40.206777. CrossRefPubMed
Beck, A. T., Freeman, A., Davis, D. D., Pretzer, J., Fleming, B., Arntz, A., et al. (2004). Cognitive therapy of personality disorders. New York: The Guilford Press.
Bernstein, D. P. (2002). Cognitive therapy of personality disorders in patients with histories of emotional abuse or neglect. Psychiatric Annals, 32(10), 618–628.
Bernstein, D. P., & Fink, L. (1998). Childhood trauma questionnaire: A retrospective self-report. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.
Brook, C. A., & Schmidt, L. A. (2008). Social anxiety disorder: A review of environmental risk factors. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4(1), 123–143. PubMed
Chambless, D. L., Fydrich, T., & Rodebaugh, T. L. (2006). Generalized social phobia and avoidant personality disorder: Meaningful distinction or useless duplication? Depression and Anxiety, 0, 1–12.
Chorpita, B. F., & Barlow, D. H. (1998). The development of anxiety: The role of control in the early environment. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 3–21.
Dunsmore, J. C., & Halberstadt, A. G. (1997). How does family emotional expressiveness affect children’s schemas? New Directions for Child Development, 77, 45–68. PubMed
Fossati, A., Maffei, C., Bagnato, M., Donati, D., Fiorilli, M., Novella, L., et al. (1998). Brief communication: Criterion validity of the personality diagnostic questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+) in a mixed psychiatric sample. Journal of Personality Disorders, 12, 172–178. PubMed
Glaser, B. A., Campbell, L. F., Calhoun, G. B., Bates, J. M., & Petrocelli, J. V. (2002). The early maladaptive schema questionnaire-short form: A construct validity study. Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling & Development, 35, 2–13.
Hair, J. F. J., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (5th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Hoffart, A., Sexton, H., Hedley, L. M., Wang, C. E., Holthe, H., Haugman, J. A., et al. (2006). The structure of maladaptive schemas: A confirmatory factor analysis and a psychometric valuation of factor-derived scales. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29(6), 627–644. doi: 10.1007/s10608-005-9630-0. CrossRef
Hyler, S. E. (1994). Personality diagnostic questionnaire 4+ (PDQ-4+). New York: New York State Psychiatric Institute.
Johnson, J. G., Smailes, E. M., Cohen, P., Brown, J., & Bernstein, D. P. (2000). Associations between four types of childhood neglect and personality disorder symptoms during adolescence and early adulthood: Findings of a community-based longitudinal study. Journal of Personality Disorders, 14(2), 171–187. PubMed
Joyce, P. R., McKenzie, J. M., Luty, S. E., Mulder, R. T., Carter, J. D., Sullivan, P. F., et al. (2003). Temperament, childhood environment and psychopathology as risk factors for avoidant and borderline personality disorders. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 37, 756–764. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1614.2003.01263.x. PubMed
Little, R. J. A., & Rubin, D. B. (1987). Statistical analysis with missing data. New York: Wiley.
Manassis, K., Owens, M., Adam, K. S., West, M., & Sheldon-Keller, A. E. (1999). Assessing attachment: Convergent validity of the adult attachment interview and the parental bonding instrument. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 33, 559–567. doi: 10.1046/j.1440-1614.1999.00560.x. PubMed
Meyer, B., & Carver, C. S. (2000). Negative childhood accounts, sensitivity, and pessimism: A study of avoidant personality disorder features in college students. Journal of Personality Disorders, 14, 233–248. PubMed
Nakao, K., Gunderson, J. G., Phillips, K. A., Tanaka, N., Yorifuji, K., Takaishi, J., et al. (1992). Functional impairment in personality disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders, 6, 24–33.
Nash, M. R., Hulsey, T. L., Sexton, M. C., Harralson, T. L., & Lambert, W. (1993). Long-term sequelae of childhood sexual abuse: Perceived family environment, psychopathology, and dissociation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 276–283. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.61.2.276. CrossRefPubMed
Paris, J. (1998). Does childhood trauma cause personality disorders in adults? Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 43(2), 148–153.
Parker, G. (1989). The parental bonding instrument: Psychometric properties reviewed. Psychiatric Developments, 4, 317–335.
Parker, G., Tupling, H., & Brown, L. B. (1979). A parental bonding instrument. The British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1–10.
Rettew, D. C., Zanarini, M. C., Yen, S., Grilo, C. M., Skodol, A. E., Shea, M. T., et al. (2003). Childhood antecedents of avoidant personality disorder: A retrospective study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1122–1130. doi: 10.1097/01.CHI.0000070250.24125.5F. CrossRefPubMed
Skodol, A. E., Oldham, J. M., Bender, D. S., Dyck, I. R., Stout, R. L., Morey, L. C., et al. (2005). Dimensional representations of DSM-IV personality disorders: Relationships to functional impairment. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(10), 1919–1925. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.10.1919. CrossRefPubMed
Sturrock, B.A., Francis, A.J.P., & Carr, S.N. (2009). Avoidance of affect mediates the effect of invalidating childhood environments on borderline personality symptomatology in a non-clinical sample. Clinical Psychologist (in press).
van Velzen, C. J. M., Emmelkamp, P. M. G., & Scholing, A. (2000). Generalized social phobia versus avoidant personality disorder: Differences in psychopathology, personality traits, and social and occupational functioning. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 14, 395–411. doi: 10.1016/S0887-6185(00)00030-X. CrossRefPubMed
Westen, D., & Shedler, J. (1999). Revising and assessing axis II, part II: Toward an empirically based and clinically useful classification of personality disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(2), 273–285. PubMed
Wiggins, J. S., & Pincus, A. L. (1989). Conceptions of personality disorders and dimensions of personality. Psychological Assessment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1(4), 305–316. CrossRef
Wilberg, T., Dammen, T., & Friis, S. (2000). Comparing personality diagnostic questionnaire-4+ with a longitudinal, expert, all data (LEAD) standard diagnoses in a sample with a high prevalence of axis I and axis II disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 41(4), 295–302. doi: 10.1053/comp.2000.0410295. CrossRefPubMed
Willinger, U., Diendorfer-Radner, G., Willnauer, R., Jörgl, G., & Hager, V. (2005). Parenting stress and parental bonding. Behavioral Medicine (Washington, D.C.), 31(2), 63. doi: 10.3200/BMED.31.2.63-72.
Young, J.E., & Brown, G.K. (2003). Young schema questionnaire-short form, from www.schematherapy.com.
Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. New York: The Guilford Press.
Zimmerman, M. (1994). Diagnosing personality disorders: A review of issues and research methods. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 225–245. PubMed
- Do Early Maladaptive Schemas Mediate the Relationship Between Childhood Experiences and Avoidant Personality Disorder Features? A Preliminary Investigation in a Non-Clinical Sample
Steven N. Carr
Andrew J. P. Francis
- Springer US