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04-04-2020

Distress Variance and Specificity of Symptom Dimensions in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: a Quadripartite Perspective

Auteurs: Joshua D. Clapp, Joshua J. Kemp, Matthew J. Woodward, J. Gayle Beck

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment | Uitgave 2/2020

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Abstract

The relation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to other forms of psychopathology is complex as diagnostic criteria include symptoms of both mood- and anxiety-related conditions. Drawing from Watson’s (2009) quadripartite model of comorbidity, the current study examined (a) the association of PTSD symptom dimensions with indices of generalized distress, (b) the specificity of PTSD symptom dimensions for core aspects of anxiety and depression, and (c) the unique associations of symptom dimensions with markers of positive emotionality, somatic arousal, generalized distress, and cumulative trauma history. Confirmatory analyses were used to model symptom dimensions in help-seeking survivors of intimate partner violence (N = 238; 51.7% White/Non-Hispanic). Latent markers of positive emotionality, somatic arousal, and generalized distress were also estimated. A 3-factor version of the Simms et al. (2002) Dysphoria model was identified as a preferred solution, with Intrusion and Avoidance criteria collapsed on a common dimension. Analyses revealed moderate correlations of generalized distress with Intrusion-Avoidance, Dysphoria, and Hyperarousal dimensions (r = .30–.38). Intrusion-Avoidance and Hyperarousal factors evidenced specificity for the core aspects of anxiety while Dysphoria demonstrated an association with the characteristic features of depression when controlling for nonspecific distress. Hyperarousal was the only symptom dimension holding a unique association with cumulative trauma controlling for somatic arousal, positive emotionality, and generalized distress. Results offer preliminary support for the specificity of core dimensions of PTSD above and beyond the influence of nonspecific distress.
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Voetnoten
1
The number of items used to identify latent NA, PA, and SA factors was limited to manage the size of the joint measurement model. Efforts were taken to select indicators capturing various aspects of the target construct.
 
2
We thank an anonymous reviewer for their assistance with identification of this scale.
 
3
MPlus syntax for the final series of models are provided in a supplemental appendix.
 
4
Estimates of specificity and general distress variance for the 3-factor Numbing model are available from the first author upon request.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Distress Variance and Specificity of Symptom Dimensions in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: a Quadripartite Perspective
Auteurs
Joshua D. Clapp
Joshua J. Kemp
Matthew J. Woodward
J. Gayle Beck
Publicatiedatum
04-04-2020
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment / Uitgave 2/2020
Print ISSN: 0882-2689
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3505
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-019-09772-9

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