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Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology 7/2021

01-03-2021

Distinct Patterns of Impaired Cognitive Control Among Boys and Girls with ADHD Across Development

Auteurs: Alyssa DeRonda, Yi Zhao, Karen E. Seymour, Stewart H. Mostofsky, Keri S. Rosch

Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology | Uitgave 7/2021

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Abstract

This study examined whether girls and boys with ADHD show similar impairments in cognitive control from childhood into adolescence and the developmental relationship between cognitive control and ADHD symptoms. Participants include 8–17-year-old children with ADHD (n = 353, 104 girls) and typically developing (TD) controls (n = 241, 86 girls) with longitudinal data obtained from n = 137. Participants completed two go/no-go (GNG) tasks that varied in working memory demand. Linear mixed-effects models were applied to compare age-related changes in cognitive control for each GNG task among girls and boys with ADHD and TD controls and in relation to ADHD symptoms. Boys with ADHD showed impaired response inhibition and increased response variability across tasks. In contrast, girls with ADHD showed impaired response inhibition only with greater working memory demands whereas they displayed increased response variability regardless of working memory demands. Analysis of age-related change revealed that deficits in cognitive control under minimal working memory demands increase with age among girls with ADHD and decrease with age among boys with ADHD. In contrast, deficits in cognitive control with greater working memory demands decrease with age among both boys and girls with ADHD compared to TD peers. Among children with ADHD poor response inhibition during childhood predicted inattentive symptoms in adolescence and was associated with less age-related improvement in inattentive symptoms. These findings suggest that girls and boys with ADHD show differential impairment in cognitive control across development and response inhibition in childhood may be an important predictor of ADHD symptoms in adolescence.

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Voetnoten
1
Including GAI, SES, and ODD symptoms as covariates for the Simple GNG ComRate model results in a weaker Diagnosis × Sex interaction (p = 0.097), although the a priori subgroup comparisons are similar with a significant effect of diagnosis for boys (p < 0.001) and not for girls (p = 0.269), as well as an effect of sex within the ADHD group (p < 0.001).
 
2
Including GAI, SES, and ODD symptoms as covariates for the Simple GNG ComRate model examining effects of age results in a weaker Diagnosis × Sex × Age interaction (p = 0.096), although a priori subgroup comparisons are similar with an effect of diagnosis among girls (p = 0.018) but not boys (p = 0.786) as well as an effect of sex within the ADHD group (p = 0.002).
 
3
Including GAI, SES, and ODD symptoms as covariates for the Simple GNG Tau model results in a weaker Diagnosis × Sex interaction (p = 0.059), whereas the a priori subgroup comparisons suggest a significant effect of diagnosis for boys (p < 0.001) but not for girls (p = 0.124).
 
4
Including GAI, SES, and ODD symptoms as covariates for the Simple GNG ComRate model examining effects of age results in a weaker Diagnosis × Sex × Age interaction (p = 0.091), and a priori subgroup comparisons no longer show a significant effect of diagnosis among boys (p = 0.106).
 
5
Including GAI, SES, and ODD symptoms as covariates for the Complex GNG ComRate model examining effects of age suggests there is not a Diagnosis × Sex × Age interaction (p = 0.266), and a priori subgroup comparisons no longer show a significant effect of diagnosis among girls (p = 0.248) or a sex effect within the ADHD group (p = 0.172).
 
6
Including GAI, SES, and ODD symptoms as covariates for the Complex GNG Tau model results in a weaker Diagnosis × Sex interaction (p = 0.049). The a priori subgroup comparisons revealed a significant effect of diagnosis for boys (p < 0.001) whereas it was no longer significant for girls (p = 0.211).
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Distinct Patterns of Impaired Cognitive Control Among Boys and Girls with ADHD Across Development
Auteurs
Alyssa DeRonda
Yi Zhao
Karen E. Seymour
Stewart H. Mostofsky
Keri S. Rosch
Publicatiedatum
01-03-2021
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology / Uitgave 7/2021
Print ISSN: 2730-7166
Elektronisch ISSN: 2730-7174
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-021-00792-2