Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 9/2007

01-10-2007 | Original Paper

Disparities in Diagnoses Received Prior to a Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Auteurs: David S. Mandell, Richard F. Ittenbach, Susan E. Levy, Jennifer A. Pinto-Martin

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 9/2007

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

This study estimated differences by ethnicity in the diagnoses assigned prior to the diagnosis of autism. In this sample of 406 Medicaid-eligible children, African-Americans were 2.6 times less likely than white children to receive an autism diagnosis on their first specialty care visit. Among children who did not receive an autism diagnosis on their first visit, ADHD was the most common diagnosis. African-American children were 5.1 times more likely than white children to receive a diagnosis of adjustment disorder than of ADHD, and 2.4 times more likely to receive a diagnosis of conduct disorder than of ADHD. Differences in diagnostic patterns by ethnicity suggest possible variations in parents’ descriptions of symptoms, clinician interpretations and expectations, or symptom presentation.
Literatuur
go back to reference Aman, M., & Langworthy, K. (2000). Pharmacotherapy for hyperactivity in children with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 30(5), 451–459. CrossRef Aman, M., & Langworthy, K. (2000). Pharmacotherapy for hyperactivity in children with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 30(5), 451–459. CrossRef
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, text revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, text revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
go back to reference Baird, G., Charman, T., Cox, A., Baron-Cohen, S., Swettenham, J., Wheelwright, S., et al. (2001). Screening and surveillance for autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 84(6), 468–475. PubMedCrossRef Baird, G., Charman, T., Cox, A., Baron-Cohen, S., Swettenham, J., Wheelwright, S., et al. (2001). Screening and surveillance for autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 84(6), 468–475. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Balsa, A., & McGuire, T. (2001). Statistical discrimination in health care. Journal of Health Economics, 20, 881–907. PubMedCrossRef Balsa, A., & McGuire, T. (2001). Statistical discrimination in health care. Journal of Health Economics, 20, 881–907. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Balsa, A., McGuire, T., & Meredith, L. (2005). Testing for statistical discrimination in health care. Health Services Research, 40(1), 227–252. PubMedCrossRef Balsa, A., McGuire, T., & Meredith, L. (2005). Testing for statistical discrimination in health care. Health Services Research, 40(1), 227–252. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bonde, E. (2000). Comorbidity and subgroups in childhood autism. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 9, 7–10. CrossRef Bonde, E. (2000). Comorbidity and subgroups in childhood autism. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 9, 7–10. CrossRef
go back to reference Bryson, S., Rogers, S., & Fombonne, E. (2003). Autism spectrum disorders: Early detection, intervention, education, and psychopharmacological management. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 48(8), 506–516. Bryson, S., Rogers, S., & Fombonne, E. (2003). Autism spectrum disorders: Early detection, intervention, education, and psychopharmacological management. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 48(8), 506–516.
go back to reference Chakrabarti, S., & Fombonne, E. (2001). Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285(24), 3093–3099. PubMedCrossRef Chakrabarti, S., & Fombonne, E. (2001). Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285(24), 3093–3099. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Charman, T., Taylor, E., Drew, A., Cockerill, H., Brown, J., & Baird, G. (2005). Outcome at 7 years of children diagnosed with autism at age 2: Predictive validity of assessments conducted at 2 and 3 years of age and pattern of symptom change over time. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(5), 500–513. PubMedCrossRef Charman, T., Taylor, E., Drew, A., Cockerill, H., Brown, J., & Baird, G. (2005). Outcome at 7 years of children diagnosed with autism at age 2: Predictive validity of assessments conducted at 2 and 3 years of age and pattern of symptom change over time. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(5), 500–513. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Collins, A., Ma, D., Whitehead, P., Martin, E., Wright, H., Abramson, R., et al. (2006). Investigation of autism and GABA receptor subunit genes in multiple ethnic groups. Neurogenetics, 7, 167–174. PubMedCrossRef Collins, A., Ma, D., Whitehead, P., Martin, E., Wright, H., Abramson, R., et al. (2006). Investigation of autism and GABA receptor subunit genes in multiple ethnic groups. Neurogenetics, 7, 167–174. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Constantino, J., Davis, S., Todd, R., Schindler, M., Gross, M., Brophy, S., et al. (2003). Validation of a brief quantitative measure of autistic traits: Comparison of the social responsiveness scale with the autism diagnostic interview-revised. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(4), 427–433. PubMedCrossRef Constantino, J., Davis, S., Todd, R., Schindler, M., Gross, M., Brophy, S., et al. (2003). Validation of a brief quantitative measure of autistic traits: Comparison of the social responsiveness scale with the autism diagnostic interview-revised. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(4), 427–433. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Coonrod, E., & Stone, W. (2004). Early concerns of parents of children with autistic and nonautistic disorders. Infants and Young Children, 17(3), 258–269. CrossRef Coonrod, E., & Stone, W. (2004). Early concerns of parents of children with autistic and nonautistic disorders. Infants and Young Children, 17(3), 258–269. CrossRef
go back to reference Cooper-Patrick, L., Gallo, J., Gonzales, J., Vu, H., Powe, N., Nelson, C., et al. (1999). Race, gender, and partnership in the patient–physician relationship. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282(6), 583–589. PubMedCrossRef Cooper-Patrick, L., Gallo, J., Gonzales, J., Vu, H., Powe, N., Nelson, C., et al. (1999). Race, gender, and partnership in the patient–physician relationship. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282(6), 583–589. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cooper, L., Beach, M., Johnson, R., & Inui, T. (2006). Delving below the surface. Understanding how race and ethnicity influence relationships in health care. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(Suppl 1), S21–S27. PubMedCrossRef Cooper, L., Beach, M., Johnson, R., & Inui, T. (2006). Delving below the surface. Understanding how race and ethnicity influence relationships in health care. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(Suppl 1), S21–S27. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cuccaro, M., Donnelly, S., Cope, H., Wolpert, C., Carney, R., Abramson, R., et al. (2005). Autism in african-american (aa) families: Phenotypic findings. Paper presented at the American Society of Human Genetics 55th Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT. Cuccaro, M., Donnelly, S., Cope, H., Wolpert, C., Carney, R., Abramson, R., et al. (2005). Autism in african-american (aa) families: Phenotypic findings. Paper presented at the American Society of Human Genetics 55th Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT.
go back to reference Cuccaro, M., Shao, Y., Grubber, J., Slifer, M., Wolpert, C., Donnelly, S., et al. (2003). Factor analysis of restricted and repetitive behaviors in autism using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-R. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 34(1), 3–17. CrossRef Cuccaro, M., Shao, Y., Grubber, J., Slifer, M., Wolpert, C., Donnelly, S., et al. (2003). Factor analysis of restricted and repetitive behaviors in autism using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-R. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 34(1), 3–17. CrossRef
go back to reference Cuccaro, M., Wright, H., Rownd, C., Abramson, R., Waller, J., & Fender, D. (1996). Professional perceptions of children with developmental difficulties: The influence of race and socioeconomic status. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 26(4), 461–469. CrossRef Cuccaro, M., Wright, H., Rownd, C., Abramson, R., Waller, J., & Fender, D. (1996). Professional perceptions of children with developmental difficulties: The influence of race and socioeconomic status. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 26(4), 461–469. CrossRef
go back to reference Cuffe, S., Waller, J., Cuccaro, M., Pumariega, A., & Garrison, C. (1996). Race and gender differences in the treatment of psychiatric disorders in young adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(11), 1536–1543. Cuffe, S., Waller, J., Cuccaro, M., Pumariega, A., & Garrison, C. (1996). Race and gender differences in the treatment of psychiatric disorders in young adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(11), 1536–1543.
go back to reference Daley, T. (2004). From symptom recognition to diagnosis: Children with autism in urban india. Social Science and Medicine, 58, 1323–1335. PubMedCrossRef Daley, T. (2004). From symptom recognition to diagnosis: Children with autism in urban india. Social Science and Medicine, 58, 1323–1335. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Dearlove, J., & Kearney, D. (1990). How good is general practice developmental screening. British Medical Journal, 300, 1177–1180. PubMedCrossRef Dearlove, J., & Kearney, D. (1990). How good is general practice developmental screening. British Medical Journal, 300, 1177–1180. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Dobos, A., Dworkin, P., & Bernstein, B. (1994). Pediatricians’ approaches to developmental problems: Has the gap been narrowed. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 15, 34–39. PubMedCrossRef Dobos, A., Dworkin, P., & Bernstein, B. (1994). Pediatricians’ approaches to developmental problems: Has the gap been narrowed. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 15, 34–39. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Dumont-Mathieu, T., & Fein, D. (2005). Screening for autism in young children: The modified checklist for autism in toddlers (m-chat) and other measures. Mental Retardation & Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 11(3), 253–262. CrossRef Dumont-Mathieu, T., & Fein, D. (2005). Screening for autism in young children: The modified checklist for autism in toddlers (m-chat) and other measures. Mental Retardation & Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 11(3), 253–262. CrossRef
go back to reference Eisenmajer, R., Prior, M., Leekam, S., Wing, L., Gould, J., Welham, M., et al. (1996). Comparison of clinical symptoms in autism and asperger’s disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(11), 1523–1531. CrossRef Eisenmajer, R., Prior, M., Leekam, S., Wing, L., Gould, J., Welham, M., et al. (1996). Comparison of clinical symptoms in autism and asperger’s disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(11), 1523–1531. CrossRef
go back to reference Fombonne, E. (2003). Epidemiological surveys of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders: An update. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(4), 365–382. PubMedCrossRef Fombonne, E. (2003). Epidemiological surveys of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders: An update. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(4), 365–382. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Fombonne, E., Heavey, L., Smeeth, L., Rodrigues, L., Cook, C., Smith, P., et al. (2004). Validation of the diagnosis of autism in general practitioner records. BMC Public Health, 4(Article 5). Fombonne, E., Heavey, L., Smeeth, L., Rodrigues, L., Cook, C., Smith, P., et al. (2004). Validation of the diagnosis of autism in general practitioner records. BMC Public Health, 4(Article 5).
go back to reference Glascoe, F. (1997). Parent’s concerns about children’s development: Prescreening technique or screening test? Pediatrics, 99(4), 522–528. PubMedCrossRef Glascoe, F. (1997). Parent’s concerns about children’s development: Prescreening technique or screening test? Pediatrics, 99(4), 522–528. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Goldstein, S., & Schwebach, A. (2004). The comorbidity of pervasive developmental disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Results of a retrospective chart review. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 34(3), 329–339. CrossRef Goldstein, S., & Schwebach, A. (2004). The comorbidity of pervasive developmental disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Results of a retrospective chart review. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 34(3), 329–339. CrossRef
go back to reference Guevara, J., Mandell, D., Rostain, A., Zhao, H., & Hadley, T. (2006). Disparities in the reporting and treatment of health conditions in children: An analysis of the medical expenditure panel survey. Health Services Research, 41(2), 532–549. PubMedCrossRef Guevara, J., Mandell, D., Rostain, A., Zhao, H., & Hadley, T. (2006). Disparities in the reporting and treatment of health conditions in children: An analysis of the medical expenditure panel survey. Health Services Research, 41(2), 532–549. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hatton, D., Hooper, S., Bailey, D., Skinner, M., Sullivan, K., & Wheeler, A. (2002). Problem behavior in boys with fragile X syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 108(2), 105–116. PubMedCrossRef Hatton, D., Hooper, S., Bailey, D., Skinner, M., Sullivan, K., & Wheeler, A. (2002). Problem behavior in boys with fragile X syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 108(2), 105–116. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hill, A., Bolte, S., Petrova, G., Beltcheva, D., Tacheva, S., & Poustka, F. (2001). Stability and interpersonal agreement of the interview-based diagnosis of autism. Psychopathology, 34(4), 187–191. PubMedCrossRef Hill, A., Bolte, S., Petrova, G., Beltcheva, D., Tacheva, S., & Poustka, F. (2001). Stability and interpersonal agreement of the interview-based diagnosis of autism. Psychopathology, 34(4), 187–191. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Howlin, P., & Moore, A. (1997). Diagnosis of autism. A survey of over 1200 patients in the UK. Autism, 1, 135–162. CrossRef Howlin, P., & Moore, A. (1997). Diagnosis of autism. A survey of over 1200 patients in the UK. Autism, 1, 135–162. CrossRef
go back to reference Institute of Medicine (2002). Unequal treatment. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine. Institute of Medicine (2002). Unequal treatment. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine.
go back to reference Kilgus, M., Pumariega, A., & Cuffe, S. (1995). Influence of race on diagnosis in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(1), 67–72. CrossRef Kilgus, M., Pumariega, A., & Cuffe, S. (1995). Influence of race on diagnosis in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(1), 67–72. CrossRef
go back to reference Lord, C., Risi, S., DiLavore, P., Shulman, C., Thurm, A., & Pickles, A. (2006). Autism from 2 to 9 years of age. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(6), 649–701. CrossRef Lord, C., Risi, S., DiLavore, P., Shulman, C., Thurm, A., & Pickles, A. (2006). Autism from 2 to 9 years of age. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(6), 649–701. CrossRef
go back to reference Mahoney, W., Szatmari, P., MacLean, J., Bryson, S., Bartolucci, G., Walter, S., et al. (1998). Reliability and accuracy of differentiating pervasive developmental disorder subtypes. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(3), 278–285. CrossRef Mahoney, W., Szatmari, P., MacLean, J., Bryson, S., Bartolucci, G., Walter, S., et al. (1998). Reliability and accuracy of differentiating pervasive developmental disorder subtypes. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(3), 278–285. CrossRef
go back to reference Mandell, D., Listerud, J., Levy, S., & Pinto-Martin, J. (2002). Race differences in the age at diagnosis among medicaid-eligible children with autism. Journal of the American Academy Of Child And Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(12), 1447–1453. PubMedCrossRef Mandell, D., Listerud, J., Levy, S., & Pinto-Martin, J. (2002). Race differences in the age at diagnosis among medicaid-eligible children with autism. Journal of the American Academy Of Child And Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(12), 1447–1453. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Mandell, D., & Novak, M. (2005). The role of culture in families’ treatment decisions for children with autism spectrum disorders. Mental Retardation & Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 11, 110–115. CrossRef Mandell, D., & Novak, M. (2005). The role of culture in families’ treatment decisions for children with autism spectrum disorders. Mental Retardation & Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 11, 110–115. CrossRef
go back to reference Mandell, D., Novak, M., & Zubritsky, C. (2005a). Factors associated with the age of diagnosis among children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 116(6), 1480–1486. CrossRef Mandell, D., Novak, M., & Zubritsky, C. (2005a). Factors associated with the age of diagnosis among children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 116(6), 1480–1486. CrossRef
go back to reference Mandell, D., Walrath, C., Manteuffel, B., Sgro, G., & Pinto-Martin, J. (2005b). Characteristics of children with autistic spectrum disorders served in comprehensive community-based mental health settings. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(3), 113–121. CrossRef Mandell, D., Walrath, C., Manteuffel, B., Sgro, G., & Pinto-Martin, J. (2005b). Characteristics of children with autistic spectrum disorders served in comprehensive community-based mental health settings. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(3), 113–121. CrossRef
go back to reference Medicode. (1987). International classification of diseases (9th ed.). Salt Lake City, UT: Med-Index Publications. Medicode. (1987). International classification of diseases (9th ed.). Salt Lake City, UT: Med-Index Publications.
go back to reference Noterdaeme, M., Amorosa, H., Mildenberger, K., Sitter, S., & Minow, F. (2001). Evaluation of attention problems in children with autism and children with a specific language disorder. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 10(1), 58–66. CrossRef Noterdaeme, M., Amorosa, H., Mildenberger, K., Sitter, S., & Minow, F. (2001). Evaluation of attention problems in children with autism and children with a specific language disorder. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 10(1), 58–66. CrossRef
go back to reference Ohta, M., Nagai, Y., Hara, H., & Sasaki, M. (1987). Parental perception of behavioral symptoms in Japanese autistic children. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 17(4), 549–563. CrossRef Ohta, M., Nagai, Y., Hara, H., & Sasaki, M. (1987). Parental perception of behavioral symptoms in Japanese autistic children. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 17(4), 549–563. CrossRef
go back to reference Remington, G., Sloman, L., Konstantareas, M., Parker, K., & Gow, R. (2002). Clomipramine versus haloperidol in the treatment of autistic disorder: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 21(4), 440–444. CrossRef Remington, G., Sloman, L., Konstantareas, M., Parker, K., & Gow, R. (2002). Clomipramine versus haloperidol in the treatment of autistic disorder: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 21(4), 440–444. CrossRef
go back to reference Roter, D., Hall, J., Kern, D., Barker, L., Cole, K., & Roca, R. (1995). Improving physicians’ interviewing skills and reducing patients’ emotional distress: A randomized clinical trial. Archives of Internal Medicine, 155, 1877–1884. PubMedCrossRef Roter, D., Hall, J., Kern, D., Barker, L., Cole, K., & Roca, R. (1995). Improving physicians’ interviewing skills and reducing patients’ emotional distress: A randomized clinical trial. Archives of Internal Medicine, 155, 1877–1884. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Roter, D., Stewart, M., Putnam, S., Lipkin M. Jr, Stiles, W., & Inui, T. (1997). Communication patterns of primary care physicians. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277, 350–356. PubMedCrossRef Roter, D., Stewart, M., Putnam, S., Lipkin M. Jr, Stiles, W., & Inui, T. (1997). Communication patterns of primary care physicians. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277, 350–356. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Shevell, M., Majnemer, A., Rosenbaum, P., & Abrahamowicz, M. (2001). Profile of referrals for early childhood developmental delay to ambulatory subspecialty clinics. Journal of Child Neurology, 16(9), 645–650. PubMed Shevell, M., Majnemer, A., Rosenbaum, P., & Abrahamowicz, M. (2001). Profile of referrals for early childhood developmental delay to ambulatory subspecialty clinics. Journal of Child Neurology, 16(9), 645–650. PubMed
go back to reference Sices, L., Feudtner, C., McLaughlin, J., Drotar, D., & Williams, M. (2003). How do primary care physicians identify young children with developmental delays? A national survey. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 24(6), 409–417. PubMedCrossRef Sices, L., Feudtner, C., McLaughlin, J., Drotar, D., & Williams, M. (2003). How do primary care physicians identify young children with developmental delays? A national survey. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 24(6), 409–417. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Spiker, D., Lotspeich, L., Dimiceli, S., Myers, R., & Risch, N. (2002). Behavioral phenotypic variation in autism multiplex families: Evidence for a continuous severity gradient. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 114(2), 129–136. PubMedCrossRef Spiker, D., Lotspeich, L., Dimiceli, S., Myers, R., & Risch, N. (2002). Behavioral phenotypic variation in autism multiplex families: Evidence for a continuous severity gradient. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 114(2), 129–136. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Tadevosyan-Leyfer, O., Dowd, M., Mankoski, R., Winklosky, B., Putnam, S., McGrath, L., et al. (2003). A principal components analysis of the autism diagnostic interview-revised. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(7), 864–872. CrossRef Tadevosyan-Leyfer, O., Dowd, M., Mankoski, R., Winklosky, B., Putnam, S., McGrath, L., et al. (2003). A principal components analysis of the autism diagnostic interview-revised. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(7), 864–872. CrossRef
go back to reference Tukey, J. (1977). Explanatory data analysis. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Tukey, J. (1977). Explanatory data analysis. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
go back to reference Wissow, L., Larson, S., Anderson, J., & Hadjisky, E. (2005). Pediatric residents’ responses that discourage discussion of psychosocial problems in primary care. Pediatrics, 115(6), 1569–1578. PubMedCrossRef Wissow, L., Larson, S., Anderson, J., & Hadjisky, E. (2005). Pediatric residents’ responses that discourage discussion of psychosocial problems in primary care. Pediatrics, 115(6), 1569–1578. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wu, P., Hoven, C., Bird, H., Moore, R., Cohen, P., Alegria, M., et al. (1999). Depressive and disruptive disorders and mental health service utilization in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(9), 1081–1090. CrossRef Wu, P., Hoven, C., Bird, H., Moore, R., Cohen, P., Alegria, M., et al. (1999). Depressive and disruptive disorders and mental health service utilization in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(9), 1081–1090. CrossRef
go back to reference Yeargin-Allsopp, M., Rice, C., Karapurkar, T., Doernberg, N., Boyle, C., & Murphy, C. (2003). Prevalence of autism in a US metropolitan area. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289(1), 49–55. PubMedCrossRef Yeargin-Allsopp, M., Rice, C., Karapurkar, T., Doernberg, N., Boyle, C., & Murphy, C. (2003). Prevalence of autism in a US metropolitan area. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289(1), 49–55. PubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Disparities in Diagnoses Received Prior to a Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder
Auteurs
David S. Mandell
Richard F. Ittenbach
Susan E. Levy
Jennifer A. Pinto-Martin
Publicatiedatum
01-10-2007
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 9/2007
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006-0314-8