Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1/2009

01-02-2009

Discrimination and racial disparities in health: evidence and needed research

Auteurs: David R. Williams, Selina A. Mohammed

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Behavioral Medicine | Uitgave 1/2009

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

This paper provides a review and critique of empirical research on perceived discrimination and health. The patterns of racial disparities in health suggest that there are multiple ways by which racism can affect health. Perceived discrimination is one such pathway and the paper reviews the published research on discrimination and health that appeared in PubMed between 2005 and 2007. This recent research continues to document an inverse association between discrimination and health. This pattern is now evident in a wider range of contexts and for a broader array of outcomes. Advancing our understanding of the relationship between perceived discrimination and health will require more attention to situating discrimination within the context of other health-relevant aspects of racism, measuring it comprehensively and accurately, assessing its stressful dimensions, and identifying the mechanisms that link discrimination to health.
Literatuur
go back to reference Acevedo-Garcia, D., Lochner, K. A., Osypuk, T. L., & Subramanian, S. V. (2003). Future directions in residential segregation and health research: A multilevel approach. American Journal of Public Health, 93(2), 215–221. PubMed Acevedo-Garcia, D., Lochner, K. A., Osypuk, T. L., & Subramanian, S. V. (2003). Future directions in residential segregation and health research: A multilevel approach. American Journal of Public Health, 93(2), 215–221. PubMed
go back to reference Adegbembo, A. O., Tomar, S. L., & Logan, H. L. (2006). Perception of racism explains the difference between Blacks’ and Whites’ level of healthcare trust. Ethnicity & Disease, 16(4), 792–798. Adegbembo, A. O., Tomar, S. L., & Logan, H. L. (2006). Perception of racism explains the difference between Blacks’ and Whites’ level of healthcare trust. Ethnicity & Disease, 16(4), 792–798.
go back to reference Ahmed, A., Mohammed, S., & Williams, D. R. (2007). Racial discrimination & health: Pathways & evidence. The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 126, 21–30. Ahmed, A., Mohammed, S., & Williams, D. R. (2007). Racial discrimination & health: Pathways & evidence. The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 126, 21–30.
go back to reference Arce, C. H., Murguia, E., & Frisbie, W. P. (1987). Phenotype and life chances among Chicanos. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 9, 19–32. Arce, C. H., Murguia, E., & Frisbie, W. P. (1987). Phenotype and life chances among Chicanos. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 9, 19–32.
go back to reference Banks, A. D., & Dracup, K. (2006). Factors associated with prolonged prehospital delay of African Americans with acute myocardial infarction. American Journal of Critical Care, 15(2), 149–157. PubMed Banks, A. D., & Dracup, K. (2006). Factors associated with prolonged prehospital delay of African Americans with acute myocardial infarction. American Journal of Critical Care, 15(2), 149–157. PubMed
go back to reference Banks, K. H., Kohn-Wood, L. P., & Spencer, M. (2006). An examination of the African American experience of everyday discrimination and symptoms of psychological distress. Community Mental Health, 42(6), 555–570. doi: 10.​1007/​s10597-006-9052-9. Banks, K. H., Kohn-Wood, L. P., & Spencer, M. (2006). An examination of the African American experience of everyday discrimination and symptoms of psychological distress. Community Mental Health, 42(6), 555–570. doi: 10.​1007/​s10597-006-9052-9.
go back to reference Baum, A., Cohen, L., & Hall, M. (1993). Control and intrusive memories as possible determinants of chronic stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 274–286. PubMed Baum, A., Cohen, L., & Hall, M. (1993). Control and intrusive memories as possible determinants of chronic stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 274–286. PubMed
go back to reference Bauman, K. (1998). Direct measures of poverty as indicators of economic need: Evidence from the survey of income and program participation. U.S. Census Bureau Population Division Technical Working Paper No. 30. Bauman, K. (1998). Direct measures of poverty as indicators of economic need: Evidence from the survey of income and program participation. U.S. Census Bureau Population Division Technical Working Paper No. 30.
go back to reference Bazargan, M., Norris, K., Bazaragan-Hejazi, S., Akhanjee, L., Calderon, J. L., Safvati, S. D., et al. (2005). Alternative healthcare use in the under-served population. Ethnicity & Disease, 15, 531–539. Bazargan, M., Norris, K., Bazaragan-Hejazi, S., Akhanjee, L., Calderon, J. L., Safvati, S. D., et al. (2005). Alternative healthcare use in the under-served population. Ethnicity & Disease, 15, 531–539.
go back to reference Belli, R. F. (1998). The structure of autobiographical memory and the event hisory calendar: Potential improvements in the quality of retrospective reports in surveys. Memory (Hove, England), 6(4), 383–406. doi: 10.​1080/​741942610. Belli, R. F. (1998). The structure of autobiographical memory and the event hisory calendar: Potential improvements in the quality of retrospective reports in surveys. Memory (Hove, England), 6(4), 383–406. doi: 10.​1080/​741942610.
go back to reference Benkert, R., Peters, R. M., Clark, R., & Keves-Foster, K. (2006). Effects of perceived racism, cultural mistrust and trust in providers on satisfaction with care. Journal of the National Medical Association, 98(9), 1532–1540. PubMed Benkert, R., Peters, R. M., Clark, R., & Keves-Foster, K. (2006). Effects of perceived racism, cultural mistrust and trust in providers on satisfaction with care. Journal of the National Medical Association, 98(9), 1532–1540. PubMed
go back to reference Bennett, G. G., Wolin, K. Y., Robinson, E. L., Fowler, S., & Edwards, C. L. (2005). Perceived racial/ethnic harassment and tobacco use among African American young adults. American Journal of Public Health, 95(2), 238–240. doi: 10.​2105/​AJPH.​2004.​037812. PubMed Bennett, G. G., Wolin, K. Y., Robinson, E. L., Fowler, S., & Edwards, C. L. (2005). Perceived racial/ethnic harassment and tobacco use among African American young adults. American Journal of Public Health, 95(2), 238–240. doi: 10.​2105/​AJPH.​2004.​037812. PubMed
go back to reference Bhui, K., Stansfeld, S., McKenzie, K., Karlsen, S., Nazroo, J., & Weich, S. (2005). Racial/ethnic discrimination and common mental disorders among workers: Findings from the EMPIRIC Study of Ethnic Minority Groups in the United Kingdom. American Journal of Public Health, 95(3), 496–501. doi: 10.​2105/​AJPH.​2003.​033274. PubMed Bhui, K., Stansfeld, S., McKenzie, K., Karlsen, S., Nazroo, J., & Weich, S. (2005). Racial/ethnic discrimination and common mental disorders among workers: Findings from the EMPIRIC Study of Ethnic Minority Groups in the United Kingdom. American Journal of Public Health, 95(3), 496–501. doi: 10.​2105/​AJPH.​2003.​033274. PubMed
go back to reference Birman, D., Tricket, E., & Buchanan, B. M. (2005). A tale of two cities: Replication of a study on the acculturation and adaptation of immigrant adolescents from the former Soviet Union in a different community context. American Journal of Community Psychology, 35(1/2), 83–101. doi: 10.​1007/​s10464-005-1891-y. PubMed Birman, D., Tricket, E., & Buchanan, B. M. (2005). A tale of two cities: Replication of a study on the acculturation and adaptation of immigrant adolescents from the former Soviet Union in a different community context. American Journal of Community Psychology, 35(1/2), 83–101. doi: 10.​1007/​s10464-005-1891-y. PubMed
go back to reference Blank, R. M., Dabady, M., & Citro, C. F. (2004). Measuring racial discrimination. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Blank, R. M., Dabady, M., & Citro, C. F. (2004). Measuring racial discrimination. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
go back to reference Blascovitch, J., Spencer, S. J., Quinn, D., & Steele, C. (2001). African Americans and high blood pressure: The role of stereotype threat. Psychological Science, 12(3), 225–229. doi: 10.​1111/​1467-9280.​00340. Blascovitch, J., Spencer, S. J., Quinn, D., & Steele, C. (2001). African Americans and high blood pressure: The role of stereotype threat. Psychological Science, 12(3), 225–229. doi: 10.​1111/​1467-9280.​00340.
go back to reference Bonilla-Silva, E. (1996). Rethinking racism: Toward a structural interpretation. American Sociological Review, 62, 465–480. doi: 10.​2307/​2657316. Bonilla-Silva, E. (1996). Rethinking racism: Toward a structural interpretation. American Sociological Review, 62, 465–480. doi: 10.​2307/​2657316.
go back to reference Borrell, L. N., Jacobs, D. R. J., Williams, D. R., Pletcher, M. J., & Houston, T. K. (2007). Self-reported racial discrimination and substance use in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Adults Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 166(9), 1068–1079. doi: 10.​1093/​aje/​kwm180. PubMed Borrell, L. N., Jacobs, D. R. J., Williams, D. R., Pletcher, M. J., & Houston, T. K. (2007). Self-reported racial discrimination and substance use in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Adults Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 166(9), 1068–1079. doi: 10.​1093/​aje/​kwm180. PubMed
go back to reference Borrell, L. N., Kiefe, C. I., Williams, D. R., Diez-Roux, A. V., & Gordon-Larsen, P. (2006). Self-reported health, perceived racial discrimination, and skin color in African Americans in the CARDIA study. Social Science & Medicine, 63(6), 1415–1427. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​socscimed.​2006.​04.​008. Borrell, L. N., Kiefe, C. I., Williams, D. R., Diez-Roux, A. V., & Gordon-Larsen, P. (2006). Self-reported health, perceived racial discrimination, and skin color in African Americans in the CARDIA study. Social Science & Medicine, 63(6), 1415–1427. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​socscimed.​2006.​04.​008.
go back to reference Brave Heart, M. (2003). The historical trauma response among natives and its relationship with substance abuse: A Lakota illustration. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 35(1), 7–13. PubMed Brave Heart, M. (2003). The historical trauma response among natives and its relationship with substance abuse: A Lakota illustration. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 35(1), 7–13. PubMed
go back to reference Brave Heart, M., & DeBruyn, L. (1998). The American Indian Holocaust: Healing historical unresolved grief. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 8(2), 56–78. PubMed Brave Heart, M., & DeBruyn, L. (1998). The American Indian Holocaust: Healing historical unresolved grief. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 8(2), 56–78. PubMed
go back to reference Brody, G. H., Chen, Y. F., Murry, V. M., Ge, X., Simons, R. L., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., & Cutrona, C. (2006). Perceived discrimination and the adjustment of African American youths: A five-year longitudinal analysis with contextual moderation effects. Child Development, 77(5). doi: 10.​1111/​j.​1467-8624.​2006.​00927.​x. Brody, G. H., Chen, Y. F., Murry, V. M., Ge, X., Simons, R. L., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., & Cutrona, C. (2006). Perceived discrimination and the adjustment of African American youths: A five-year longitudinal analysis with contextual moderation effects. Child Development, 77(5). doi: 10.​1111/​j.​1467-8624.​2006.​00927.​x.
go back to reference Brondolo, E., Brady, N., Thompson, S., Tobin, J., Cassells, A., Sweeney, M., et al. ( 2008a). Perceived Racism and negative affect: Analyses of trait and state measures of affect in a community sample. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27(2), 150–173. doi: 10.​1521/​jscp.​2008.​27.​2.​150. PubMed Brondolo, E., Brady, N., Thompson, S., Tobin, J., Cassells, A., Sweeney, M., et al. ( 2008a). Perceived Racism and negative affect: Analyses of trait and state measures of affect in a community sample. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27(2), 150–173. doi: 10.​1521/​jscp.​2008.​27.​2.​150. PubMed
go back to reference Brondolo, E., Thompson, S., Brady, N., Appel, R., Cassells, A., Tobin, J., et al. (2005). The relationship of racism to appraisals and coping in a community sample. Ethnicity & Disease, 15(4), 14–19. Brondolo, E., Thompson, S., Brady, N., Appel, R., Cassells, A., Tobin, J., et al. (2005). The relationship of racism to appraisals and coping in a community sample. Ethnicity & Disease, 15(4), 14–19.
go back to reference Brook, D., Brook, J., Balka, E., & Rosenberg, G. (2006a). Predictors of rebellious behavior in childhood parental drug use, peers, school environment, and child personality. Journal of addictive disorders, 25(2), 77–87. Brook, D., Brook, J., Balka, E., & Rosenberg, G. (2006a). Predictors of rebellious behavior in childhood parental drug use, peers, school environment, and child personality. Journal of addictive disorders, 25(2), 77–87.
go back to reference Brook, J., Morojele, N., Brook, D., Zhang, C., & Whiteman, M. (2006b). Personal, interpersonal and cultural predictors of stages of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Johannesburg, South Africa. Tobacco Control, 15(1), 48–53. doi: 10.​1136/​tc.​2005.​014878. Brook, J., Morojele, N., Brook, D., Zhang, C., & Whiteman, M. (2006b). Personal, interpersonal and cultural predictors of stages of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Johannesburg, South Africa. Tobacco Control, 15(1), 48–53. doi: 10.​1136/​tc.​2005.​014878.
go back to reference Broudy, R., Brondolo, E., Coakley, V., Brady, N., Cassells, A., Tobin, J. N., et al. (2007). Perceived ethnic discrimination in relation to daily moods and negative social interactions. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30(1), 31–43. doi: 10.​1007/​s10865-006-9081-4. PubMed Broudy, R., Brondolo, E., Coakley, V., Brady, N., Cassells, A., Tobin, J. N., et al. (2007). Perceived ethnic discrimination in relation to daily moods and negative social interactions. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30(1), 31–43. doi: 10.​1007/​s10865-006-9081-4. PubMed
go back to reference Brown, C., Matthews, K. A., Bromberger, J. T., & Chang, Y. (2006). The relation between perceived unfair treatment and blood pressure in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of women. American Journal of Epidemiology, 164(3), 257–262. doi: 10.​1093/​aje/​kwj196. PubMed Brown, C., Matthews, K. A., Bromberger, J. T., & Chang, Y. (2006). The relation between perceived unfair treatment and blood pressure in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of women. American Journal of Epidemiology, 164(3), 257–262. doi: 10.​1093/​aje/​kwj196. PubMed
go back to reference Brown, T. N., Williams, D. R., Jackson, J. S., Neighbors, H. W., Torres, M., Sellers, S. L., et al. (2000). Being black and feeling blue: The mental health consequences of racial discrimination. Race and Society, 2, 117–131. doi: 10.​1016/​S1090-9524(00)00010-3. Brown, T. N., Williams, D. R., Jackson, J. S., Neighbors, H. W., Torres, M., Sellers, S. L., et al. (2000). Being black and feeling blue: The mental health consequences of racial discrimination. Race and Society, 2, 117–131. doi: 10.​1016/​S1090-9524(00)00010-3.
go back to reference Butler, C., Tull, E. S., Chambers, E. C., & Taylor, J. (2002). Internalized racism, body fat distribution, and abnormal fasting glucose among African-Caribbean women in Dominica, West Indies. Journal of the National Medical Association, 94(3), 143–148. PubMed Butler, C., Tull, E. S., Chambers, E. C., & Taylor, J. (2002). Internalized racism, body fat distribution, and abnormal fasting glucose among African-Caribbean women in Dominica, West Indies. Journal of the National Medical Association, 94(3), 143–148. PubMed
go back to reference Bynum, M. S., Burton, E. T., & Best, C. (2007). Racism experiences and psychological functioning in African American college freshmen: Is racial socialization a buffer? Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13(1), 64–71. doi: 10.​1037/​1099-9809.​13.​1.​64. Bynum, M. S., Burton, E. T., & Best, C. (2007). Racism experiences and psychological functioning in African American college freshmen: Is racial socialization a buffer? Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13(1), 64–71. doi: 10.​1037/​1099-9809.​13.​1.​64.
go back to reference Carr, D., & Friedman, M. A. (2005). Is obesity stigmatizing? Body weight, perceived discrimination, and psychological well-being in the United States. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46, 244–259. PubMed Carr, D., & Friedman, M. A. (2005). Is obesity stigmatizing? Body weight, perceived discrimination, and psychological well-being in the United States. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46, 244–259. PubMed
go back to reference Carter, R. T. (2007). Racism and psychological and emotional injury: recognizing and assessing race-based traumatic stress. The Counseling Psychiatrist, 35(1), 13–105. Carter, R. T. (2007). Racism and psychological and emotional injury: recognizing and assessing race-based traumatic stress. The Counseling Psychiatrist, 35(1), 13–105.
go back to reference Casagrande, S. S., Gary, T. L., LaVeist, T. A., Gaskin, D. J., & Cooper, L. A. (2007). Perceived discrimination and adherence to medical care in a racially integrated community. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(3), 389–395. doi: 10.​1007/​s11606-006-0057-4. PubMed Casagrande, S. S., Gary, T. L., LaVeist, T. A., Gaskin, D. J., & Cooper, L. A. (2007). Perceived discrimination and adherence to medical care in a racially integrated community. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(3), 389–395. doi: 10.​1007/​s11606-006-0057-4. PubMed
go back to reference Casswell, S., Huckle, T., & Pledger, M. (2002). Survey data need not underestimate alcohol consumption. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 26(10), 1561–1567. PubMed Casswell, S., Huckle, T., & Pledger, M. (2002). Survey data need not underestimate alcohol consumption. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 26(10), 1561–1567. PubMed
go back to reference Chambers, E. C., Tull, E. S., Fraser, H. S., Mutunhu, N. R., Sobers, N., & Niles, E. (2004). The relationship of internalized racism to body fat distribution and insulin resistance among African adolescent youth. Journal of the National Medical Association, 96(12), 1594–1598. PubMed Chambers, E. C., Tull, E. S., Fraser, H. S., Mutunhu, N. R., Sobers, N., & Niles, E. (2004). The relationship of internalized racism to body fat distribution and insulin resistance among African adolescent youth. Journal of the National Medical Association, 96(12), 1594–1598. PubMed
go back to reference Chen, F. M., Fryer, G. E., Jr, Phillips, R. L., Jr, Wilson, E., & Pathman, D. E. (2005). Patients’ beliefs about racism, preferences for physician race, and satisfaction with care. Annals of Family Medicine, 3(2), 138–143. doi: 10.​1370/​afm.​282. PubMed Chen, F. M., Fryer, G. E., Jr, Phillips, R. L., Jr, Wilson, E., & Pathman, D. E. (2005). Patients’ beliefs about racism, preferences for physician race, and satisfaction with care. Annals of Family Medicine, 3(2), 138–143. doi: 10.​1370/​afm.​282. PubMed
go back to reference Choi, Y., Harachi, T. W., Gillmore, M. R., & Catalano, R. F. (2006). Are multiracial adolescents at greater risk? Comparisons of rates, patterns, and correlates of substance use and violence between monoracial and multiracial adolescents. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(1), 86–97. doi: 10.​1037/​0002-9432.​76.​1.​86. PubMed Choi, Y., Harachi, T. W., Gillmore, M. R., & Catalano, R. F. (2006). Are multiracial adolescents at greater risk? Comparisons of rates, patterns, and correlates of substance use and violence between monoracial and multiracial adolescents. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(1), 86–97. doi: 10.​1037/​0002-9432.​76.​1.​86. PubMed
go back to reference Clark, R. (2006a). Interactive but not direct effects of perceived racism and trait anger predict resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure in black adolescents. Health Psychology–Sep;(5).Related Articles. LinkOut, 25(5), 580–585. Clark, R. (2006a). Interactive but not direct effects of perceived racism and trait anger predict resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure in black adolescents. Health Psychology–Sep;(5).Related Articles. LinkOut, 25(5), 580–585.
go back to reference Clark, V. R., Cobb, R. E., Hopkins, R., & Smith, C. E. (2006b). Black racial identity as a mediator of cardiovascular reactivity to racism in African-American college students. Ethnicity & Disease, 16(1), 108–113. Clark, V. R., Cobb, R. E., Hopkins, R., & Smith, C. E. (2006b). Black racial identity as a mediator of cardiovascular reactivity to racism in African-American college students. Ethnicity & Disease, 16(1), 108–113.
go back to reference Cohen, S., Kessler, R. C., & Gordon, L. U. (1995). Strategies for measuring stress in studies of psychiatric and physical disorders. In S. Cohen, R. C. Kessler & U. G. Lynn (Eds.), Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists (pp. 3–26). New York: Oxford University Press. Cohen, S., Kessler, R. C., & Gordon, L. U. (1995). Strategies for measuring stress in studies of psychiatric and physical disorders. In S. Cohen, R. C. Kessler & U. G. Lynn (Eds.), Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists (pp. 3–26). New York: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Dailey, A. B., Kasl, S. V., Holford, T. R., & Jones, B. A. (2007). Perceived racial discrimination and nonadherence to screening mammography guidelines: results from the race differences in the screening mammography process study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 165(11), 1287–1295. doi: 10.​1093/​aje/​kwm004. PubMed Dailey, A. B., Kasl, S. V., Holford, T. R., & Jones, B. A. (2007). Perceived racial discrimination and nonadherence to screening mammography guidelines: results from the race differences in the screening mammography process study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 165(11), 1287–1295. doi: 10.​1093/​aje/​kwm004. PubMed
go back to reference Davis, S. K., Liu, Y., Quarells, R. C., Din-Dzietharn, R., & M.A.H.D.S.Group. (2005). Stress-related racial discrimination and hypertension likelihood in a population-based sample of African Americans: The Metro Atlanta Heart Disease Study. Ethnicity & Disease, 15(4), 585–593. Davis, S. K., Liu, Y., Quarells, R. C., Din-Dzietharn, R., & M.A.H.D.S.Group. (2005). Stress-related racial discrimination and hypertension likelihood in a population-based sample of African Americans: The Metro Atlanta Heart Disease Study. Ethnicity & Disease, 15(4), 585–593.
go back to reference Din-Dzietharn, R., Nembhard, W. N., Collins, R., & Davis, S. D. (2004). Perceived stress following race-based discrimination at work is associated with hypertension in African-Americans. The metro Atlanta heart disease study 1999–2001. Social Science & Medicine, 58, 449–461. doi: 10.​1016/​S0277-9536(03)00211-9. Din-Dzietharn, R., Nembhard, W. N., Collins, R., & Davis, S. D. (2004). Perceived stress following race-based discrimination at work is associated with hypertension in African-Americans. The metro Atlanta heart disease study 1999–2001. Social Science & Medicine, 58, 449–461. doi: 10.​1016/​S0277-9536(03)00211-9.
go back to reference Dougall, A. L., Craig, K. J., & Baum, A. (1999). Assessment of characteristics of intrusive thoughts and their impact on distress among victims of traumatic events. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61, 38–48. PubMed Dougall, A. L., Craig, K. J., & Baum, A. (1999). Assessment of characteristics of intrusive thoughts and their impact on distress among victims of traumatic events. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61, 38–48. PubMed
go back to reference Etowa, J., Weins, J., Bernard, W. T., & Clow, B. (2007). Determinants of black women’s health in rural and remote countries. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 39(3), 56–76. PubMed Etowa, J., Weins, J., Bernard, W. T., & Clow, B. (2007). Determinants of black women’s health in rural and remote countries. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 39(3), 56–76. PubMed
go back to reference Evans, G. W., Jacobs, S. V., Dooley, D., & Catalano, R. (1987). The interaction of stressful life events and chronic strains on community mental health. American Journal of Community Psychology, 15(1), 23–34. doi: 10.​1007/​BF00919755. PubMed Evans, G. W., Jacobs, S. V., Dooley, D., & Catalano, R. (1987). The interaction of stressful life events and chronic strains on community mental health. American Journal of Community Psychology, 15(1), 23–34. doi: 10.​1007/​BF00919755. PubMed
go back to reference Ferrie, M. J., Vahtera, J., Marmot, M. G., & Kivimaki, M. (2006). Injustice at work and incidence of psychiatric morbidity: The Whitehall II study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 63, 443–450. doi: 10.​1136/​oem.​2005.​022269. PubMed Ferrie, M. J., Vahtera, J., Marmot, M. G., & Kivimaki, M. (2006). Injustice at work and incidence of psychiatric morbidity: The Whitehall II study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 63, 443–450. doi: 10.​1136/​oem.​2005.​022269. PubMed
go back to reference Fischer, C. S., Hout, M., Jankowski, M. S., Lucas, S. R., Swidler, A., & Voss, K. (1996). Inequality by design: Cracking the bell curve myth. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Fischer, C. S., Hout, M., Jankowski, M. S., Lucas, S. R., Swidler, A., & Voss, K. (1996). Inequality by design: Cracking the bell curve myth. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
go back to reference Fix, M., & Struyk, R. J. (1993). Clear and convincing evidence: Measurement of discrimination in America. Washington, D.C: Urban Institute Press. Fix, M., & Struyk, R. J. (1993). Clear and convincing evidence: Measurement of discrimination in America. Washington, D.C: Urban Institute Press.
go back to reference Forman, T. A. (2003). The social psychological costs of racial segmentation in the workplace: A study of African Americans’ well-being. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 44(3), 332–352. doi: 10.​2307/​1519783. PubMed Forman, T. A. (2003). The social psychological costs of racial segmentation in the workplace: A study of African Americans’ well-being. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 44(3), 332–352. doi: 10.​2307/​1519783. PubMed
go back to reference Fowler-Brown, A., Ashkin, E., Corbie-Smith, G., Thaker, S., & Pathman, D. E. (2006). Perception of racial barriers to health care in the rural South. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 17(1), 86–100. doi: 10.​1353/​hpu.​2006.​0022. PubMed Fowler-Brown, A., Ashkin, E., Corbie-Smith, G., Thaker, S., & Pathman, D. E. (2006). Perception of racial barriers to health care in the rural South. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 17(1), 86–100. doi: 10.​1353/​hpu.​2006.​0022. PubMed
go back to reference Gee, G. C., Chen, J., Spencer, M., See, S., Kuester, O., Tran, D., et al. (2006a). Social support as a buffer for perceived unfair treatment among Filipino Americans: Differences between San Francisco and Hawaii. American Journal of Public Health, 96(4), 677–684. doi: 10.​2105/​AJPH.​2004.​060442. PubMed Gee, G. C., Chen, J., Spencer, M., See, S., Kuester, O., Tran, D., et al. (2006a). Social support as a buffer for perceived unfair treatment among Filipino Americans: Differences between San Francisco and Hawaii. American Journal of Public Health, 96(4), 677–684. doi: 10.​2105/​AJPH.​2004.​060442. PubMed
go back to reference Gee, G. C., Delva, J., & Takeuchi, D. (2007a). Relationships between self-reported unfair treatment and prescription medication use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence among Filipino Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 97(5), 933–940. doi: 10.​2105/​AJPH.​2005.​075739. PubMed Gee, G. C., Delva, J., & Takeuchi, D. (2007a). Relationships between self-reported unfair treatment and prescription medication use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence among Filipino Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 97(5), 933–940. doi: 10.​2105/​AJPH.​2005.​075739. PubMed
go back to reference Gee, G. C., Ryan, A., Laflamme, D. J., & Holt, J. (2006b). Self-reported discrimination and mental health status among African descendents, Mexican Americans, and other Latinos in the New Hampshire REACH 2010 Initiative: The added dimension of immigration. American Journal of Public Health, 96(10), 1821–1828. doi: 10.​2105/​AJPH.​2005.​080085. PubMed Gee, G. C., Ryan, A., Laflamme, D. J., & Holt, J. (2006b). Self-reported discrimination and mental health status among African descendents, Mexican Americans, and other Latinos in the New Hampshire REACH 2010 Initiative: The added dimension of immigration. American Journal of Public Health, 96(10), 1821–1828. doi: 10.​2105/​AJPH.​2005.​080085. PubMed
go back to reference Gee, G. C., Spencer, M. S., Chen, J., & Takeuchi, D. (2007c). A nationwide study of discrimination and chronic health conditions among Asian Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 97(7), 1275–1282. doi: 10.​2105/​AJPH.​2006.​091827. PubMed Gee, G. C., Spencer, M. S., Chen, J., & Takeuchi, D. (2007c). A nationwide study of discrimination and chronic health conditions among Asian Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 97(7), 1275–1282. doi: 10.​2105/​AJPH.​2006.​091827. PubMed
go back to reference Gee, G. C., Spencer, M., Chen, J., Yip, T., & Takeuchi, D. (2007b). The association between self-reported racial discrimination and 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders among Asian Americans nationwide. Social Science & Medicine, 64(10), 1984–1996. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​socscimed.​2007.​02.​013. Gee, G. C., Spencer, M., Chen, J., Yip, T., & Takeuchi, D. (2007b). The association between self-reported racial discrimination and 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders among Asian Americans nationwide. Social Science & Medicine, 64(10), 1984–1996. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​socscimed.​2007.​02.​013.
go back to reference Gibbons, F. X, Yeh, H. C., Gerrard, M., Cleveland, M. J., Cutrona, C., Simons, R. L., & Brody, G. H. (2007). Early experience with racial discrimination and conduct disorder as predictors of subsequent drug use: A critical period hypothesis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 88(Suppl 1), 27–37. Gibbons, F. X, Yeh, H. C., Gerrard, M., Cleveland, M. J., Cutrona, C., Simons, R. L., & Brody, G. H. (2007). Early experience with racial discrimination and conduct disorder as predictors of subsequent drug use: A critical period hypothesis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 88(Suppl 1), 27–37.
go back to reference Goldsmith, A. H., Hamilton, Darrick., & Darity, William, Jr. (2007). From dark to light: Skin color and wages among African-Americans. The Journal of Human Resources, 42(4), 701–738. Goldsmith, A. H., Hamilton, Darrick., & Darity, William, Jr. (2007). From dark to light: Skin color and wages among African-Americans. The Journal of Human Resources, 42(4), 701–738.
go back to reference Gomez, J. P., & Trierweiler, S. (2001). Does discrimination terminology create response bias in questionnaire studies of discrimination? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(5), 630–638. doi: 10.​1177/​0146167201275011​. Gomez, J. P., & Trierweiler, S. (2001). Does discrimination terminology create response bias in questionnaire studies of discrimination? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(5), 630–638. doi: 10.​1177/​0146167201275011​.
go back to reference Green, A. R., Carney, D. R., Pallin, D. J., Ngo, L. H., Raymond, K. L., Iezzoni, L. I., et al. (2007). Implicit bias among physicians and its prediction of thrombolysis decisions for black and white patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(9), 1231–1238. doi: 10.​1007/​s11606-007-0258-5. PubMed Green, A. R., Carney, D. R., Pallin, D. J., Ngo, L. H., Raymond, K. L., Iezzoni, L. I., et al. (2007). Implicit bias among physicians and its prediction of thrombolysis decisions for black and white patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(9), 1231–1238. doi: 10.​1007/​s11606-007-0258-5. PubMed
go back to reference Greene, M. L., Way, N., & Pahl, K. (2006). Trajectories of perceived adult and peer discrimination among Black, Latino, and Asian American adolescents: Patterns and psychological correlates. Developmental Psychology, 42(2), 218–236. doi: 10.​1037/​0012-1649.​42.​2.​218. PubMed Greene, M. L., Way, N., & Pahl, K. (2006). Trajectories of perceived adult and peer discrimination among Black, Latino, and Asian American adolescents: Patterns and psychological correlates. Developmental Psychology, 42(2), 218–236. doi: 10.​1037/​0012-1649.​42.​2.​218. PubMed
go back to reference Guyll, M., Matthews, K. A., & Bromberger, J. T. (2001). Discrimination and unfair treatment: Relationship to cardiovascular reactivity among African American and European American women. Health Psychology, 20(5), 315–325. doi: 10.​1037/​0278-6133.​20.​5.​315. PubMed Guyll, M., Matthews, K. A., & Bromberger, J. T. (2001). Discrimination and unfair treatment: Relationship to cardiovascular reactivity among African American and European American women. Health Psychology, 20(5), 315–325. doi: 10.​1037/​0278-6133.​20.​5.​315. PubMed
go back to reference Harrell, S. P. (1997). The Racism and Life Experience Scales (RaLES): Self-administration version. Los Angeles, CA: California School of Professional Psychology. Harrell, S. P. (1997). The Racism and Life Experience Scales (RaLES): Self-administration version. Los Angeles, CA: California School of Professional Psychology.
go back to reference Harris, R., Tobias, M., Jeffreys, M., Waldegrave, K., Karlsen, S., & Nazroo, J. (2006a). Effects of self-reported racial discrimination and deprivation on Māori health and inequalities in New Zealand: Cross-sectional study. Lancet, 367(9527), 2005–2009. doi: 10.​1016/​S0140-6736(06)68890-9. PubMed Harris, R., Tobias, M., Jeffreys, M., Waldegrave, K., Karlsen, S., & Nazroo, J. (2006a). Effects of self-reported racial discrimination and deprivation on Māori health and inequalities in New Zealand: Cross-sectional study. Lancet, 367(9527), 2005–2009. doi: 10.​1016/​S0140-6736(06)68890-9. PubMed
go back to reference Harris, R., Tobias, M., Jeffreys, M., Waldegrave, K., Karlsen, S., & Nazroo, J. (2006b). Racism and health: The relationship between experience of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Social Science & Medicine, 63(6), 1428–1441. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​socscimed.​2006.​04.​009. Harris, R., Tobias, M., Jeffreys, M., Waldegrave, K., Karlsen, S., & Nazroo, J. (2006b). Racism and health: The relationship between experience of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Social Science & Medicine, 63(6), 1428–1441. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​socscimed.​2006.​04.​009.
go back to reference Jones, J. M. (1997). Prejudice and racism. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Inc. Jones, J. M. (1997). Prejudice and racism. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Inc.
go back to reference Jones, C. P. (2000). Levels of racism: A theoretical framework and a gardener’s tale. American Journal of Public Health, 90(8), 1212–1215. PubMed Jones, C. P. (2000). Levels of racism: A theoretical framework and a gardener’s tale. American Journal of Public Health, 90(8), 1212–1215. PubMed
go back to reference Kalichman, S. C., Simbayi, L. C., Kagee, A., Toefy, Y., Jootse, S., Cain, D., et al. (2006). Associations of poverty, substance use and HIV transmission risk behaviors in three South African Communities. Social Science & Medicine, 62, 1641–1649. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​socscimed.​2005.​08.​021. Kalichman, S. C., Simbayi, L. C., Kagee, A., Toefy, Y., Jootse, S., Cain, D., et al. (2006). Associations of poverty, substance use and HIV transmission risk behaviors in three South African Communities. Social Science & Medicine, 62, 1641–1649. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​socscimed.​2005.​08.​021.
go back to reference Karlsen, S., Nazroo, J. Y., McKenzie, K., Bhui, K., & Weich, S. (2005). Racism, psychosis and common mental disorder among ethnic minority groups in England. Psychological Medicine, 35(12), 1795–1803. doi: 10.​1017/​S003329170500583​0. PubMed Karlsen, S., Nazroo, J. Y., McKenzie, K., Bhui, K., & Weich, S. (2005). Racism, psychosis and common mental disorder among ethnic minority groups in England. Psychological Medicine, 35(12), 1795–1803. doi: 10.​1017/​S003329170500583​0. PubMed
go back to reference Kaufman, J. S., Cooper, R. S., & McGee, D. L. (1997). Socioeconomic status and health in blacks and whites: The problem of residual confounding and the resiliency of race. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass), 8, 621–628. doi: 10.​1097/​00001648-199710000-00002. Kaufman, J. S., Cooper, R. S., & McGee, D. L. (1997). Socioeconomic status and health in blacks and whites: The problem of residual confounding and the resiliency of race. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass), 8, 621–628. doi: 10.​1097/​00001648-199710000-00002.
go back to reference Keith, V. M., & Herring, C. (1991). Skin tone and stratification in the black community. American Journal of Sociology, 97(3), 760–778. doi: 10.​1086/​229819. Keith, V. M., & Herring, C. (1991). Skin tone and stratification in the black community. American Journal of Sociology, 97(3), 760–778. doi: 10.​1086/​229819.
go back to reference Kessler, R. C., Galea, S., Gruber, M. J., Sampson, N. A., Ursano, R. J., & Wessely, S. (2008). Trends in mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Molecular Psychiatry, 13, 374–384. doi: 10.​1038/​sj.​mp.​4002119. Kessler, R. C., Galea, S., Gruber, M. J., Sampson, N. A., Ursano, R. J., & Wessely, S. (2008). Trends in mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Molecular Psychiatry, 13, 374–384. doi: 10.​1038/​sj.​mp.​4002119.
go back to reference Kessler, R. C., Mickelson, K. D., & Williams, D. R. (1999). The prevalence, distribution, and mental health correlates of perceived discrimination in the United States. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 40, 208–230. doi: 10.​2307/​2676349. PubMed Kessler, R. C., Mickelson, K. D., & Williams, D. R. (1999). The prevalence, distribution, and mental health correlates of perceived discrimination in the United States. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 40, 208–230. doi: 10.​2307/​2676349. PubMed
go back to reference Khaylis, A., Waelde, L. C., & Bruce, E. J. (2007). The role of ethnic identity in the relationship of race-related stress to PTSD symptoms among young adults. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 8(4), 91–105. doi: 10.​1300/​J229v08n04_​06. Khaylis, A., Waelde, L. C., & Bruce, E. J. (2007). The role of ethnic identity in the relationship of race-related stress to PTSD symptoms among young adults. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 8(4), 91–105. doi: 10.​1300/​J229v08n04_​06.
go back to reference Kressin, N. R., Kristal, R. L., & Manze, M. (2008). Perceptions of race/ethnicity based discrimination: A review of measures and evaluation of their usefullness for the health care setting. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 19, 697–730. doi: 10.​1353/​hpu.​0.​0041. PubMed Kressin, N. R., Kristal, R. L., & Manze, M. (2008). Perceptions of race/ethnicity based discrimination: A review of measures and evaluation of their usefullness for the health care setting. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 19, 697–730. doi: 10.​1353/​hpu.​0.​0041. PubMed
go back to reference Krieger, N. (1999). Embodying Inequality: A review of concepts, measures, and methods for studying health consequences of discrimination. International Journal of Health Services, 29(2), 295–352. doi: 10.​2190/​M11W-VWXE-KQM9-G97Q. PubMed Krieger, N. (1999). Embodying Inequality: A review of concepts, measures, and methods for studying health consequences of discrimination. International Journal of Health Services, 29(2), 295–352. doi: 10.​2190/​M11W-VWXE-KQM9-G97Q. PubMed
go back to reference Krieger, N., Smith, K., Naishadham, D., Hartman, C., & Barbeau, E. M. (2005). Experiences of discrimination: Validity and reliability of a self-report measure for population health research on racism and health. Social Science & Medicine, 61(7), 1576–1596. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​socscimed.​2005.​03.​006. Krieger, N., Smith, K., Naishadham, D., Hartman, C., & Barbeau, E. M. (2005). Experiences of discrimination: Validity and reliability of a self-report measure for population health research on racism and health. Social Science & Medicine, 61(7), 1576–1596. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​socscimed.​2005.​03.​006.
go back to reference Krysan, M., & Couper, M. P. (2003). Race in the live and virtual interview: Racial deference, social desirability, and activation effects in attitude surveys. Social Psychology Quarterly, 66(4), 364–383. doi: 10.​2307/​1519835. Krysan, M., & Couper, M. P. (2003). Race in the live and virtual interview: Racial deference, social desirability, and activation effects in attitude surveys. Social Psychology Quarterly, 66(4), 364–383. doi: 10.​2307/​1519835.
go back to reference Kubany, E. S., Haynes, S. N., Leisen, M. B., Owens, J. A., Kaplan, A. S., Watson, S. B., et al. (2000). Development and preliminary validation of a brief broad-spectrum measure of trauma exposure: The Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire. Psychological Assessment, 12(2), 210–224. doi: 10.​1037/​1040-3590.​12.​2.​210. PubMed Kubany, E. S., Haynes, S. N., Leisen, M. B., Owens, J. A., Kaplan, A. S., Watson, S. B., et al. (2000). Development and preliminary validation of a brief broad-spectrum measure of trauma exposure: The Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire. Psychological Assessment, 12(2), 210–224. doi: 10.​1037/​1040-3590.​12.​2.​210. PubMed
go back to reference Kung, H. C., Hoyert, D. L., Xu, J., & Murphy, S. L. (2008). Deaths: Final data for 2005. National Vital Statistics Reports, 56(10), 4–26. Kung, H. C., Hoyert, D. L., Xu, J., & Murphy, S. L. (2008). Deaths: Final data for 2005. National Vital Statistics Reports, 56(10), 4–26.
go back to reference Lam, B. (2007). Impact of perceived racial discrimination and collective self-esteem on psychological distress among vietnamese-american college students: Sense of coherence as mediator. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(3), 370–376. doi: 10.​1037/​0002-9432.​77.​3.​370. PubMed Lam, B. (2007). Impact of perceived racial discrimination and collective self-esteem on psychological distress among vietnamese-american college students: Sense of coherence as mediator. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(3), 370–376. doi: 10.​1037/​0002-9432.​77.​3.​370. PubMed
go back to reference Lam, A. M., Tsoi, K. W., & Chan, T. S. (2005). Adolescent Chinese immigrants in Hong Kong: A comparison with locally born students and factors associated with their psychological well-being. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 17(2), 157–168. PubMed Lam, A. M., Tsoi, K. W., & Chan, T. S. (2005). Adolescent Chinese immigrants in Hong Kong: A comparison with locally born students and factors associated with their psychological well-being. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 17(2), 157–168. PubMed
go back to reference Landrine, H., & Klonoff, E. A. (1996). The schedule of racist events: A measure of racial discrimination and a study of its negative physical and mental health consequences. The Journal of Black Psychology, 22(2), 144–168. doi: 10.​1177/​0095798496022200​2. Landrine, H., & Klonoff, E. A. (1996). The schedule of racist events: A measure of racial discrimination and a study of its negative physical and mental health consequences. The Journal of Black Psychology, 22(2), 144–168. doi: 10.​1177/​0095798496022200​2.
go back to reference Landrine, H., Klonoff, E. A., Corral, I., Fernandez, S., & Roesch, S. (2006). Conceptualizing and measuring ethnic discrimination in health research. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 29(1), 79–94. doi: 10.​1007/​s10865-005-9029-0. PubMed Landrine, H., Klonoff, E. A., Corral, I., Fernandez, S., & Roesch, S. (2006). Conceptualizing and measuring ethnic discrimination in health research. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 29(1), 79–94. doi: 10.​1007/​s10865-005-9029-0. PubMed
go back to reference Lepore, S. J., Evans, G. W., & Palsane, M. N. (1991). Social hassles and psychological health in the context of chronic crowding. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 32, 357–367. doi: 10.​2307/​2137103. PubMed Lepore, S. J., Evans, G. W., & Palsane, M. N. (1991). Social hassles and psychological health in the context of chronic crowding. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 32, 357–367. doi: 10.​2307/​2137103. PubMed
go back to reference Lepore, S. J., Revenson, T. A., Weinberger, S. L., Weston, P., Frisina, P. G., Robertson, R., et al. (2006). Effects of social stressors on cardiovascular reactivity in Black and White women. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 31(2), 120–127. doi: 10.​1207/​s15324796abm3102​_​3. PubMed Lepore, S. J., Revenson, T. A., Weinberger, S. L., Weston, P., Frisina, P. G., Robertson, R., et al. (2006). Effects of social stressors on cardiovascular reactivity in Black and White women. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 31(2), 120–127. doi: 10.​1207/​s15324796abm3102​_​3. PubMed
go back to reference Levine, R. S., Foster, J. E., Fullilove, R. E., Briggs, N. C., Hull, P. C., Husaini, B. A., et al. (2001). Black-white inequalities in mortality and life expectancy, 1933–1999: Implications for Healthy People 2010. Public Health Reports, 116, 474–483. PubMed Levine, R. S., Foster, J. E., Fullilove, R. E., Briggs, N. C., Hull, P. C., Husaini, B. A., et al. (2001). Black-white inequalities in mortality and life expectancy, 1933–1999: Implications for Healthy People 2010. Public Health Reports, 116, 474–483. PubMed
go back to reference Lewis, T., Everson-Rose, S., Powell, L. H., Matthews, K. A., Brown, C., Karavolos, K., et al. (2006). Chronic exposure to everyday discrimination and coronary artery calcification in African-American women: The SWAN Heart Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68, 362–368. doi: 10.​1097/​01.​psy.​0000221360.​94700.​16. PubMed Lewis, T., Everson-Rose, S., Powell, L. H., Matthews, K. A., Brown, C., Karavolos, K., et al. (2006). Chronic exposure to everyday discrimination and coronary artery calcification in African-American women: The SWAN Heart Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68, 362–368. doi: 10.​1097/​01.​psy.​0000221360.​94700.​16. PubMed
go back to reference Locher, J. R., Roth, C. S., Sawyer-Baker, P., Bodner, E., & Allman, R. M. (2005). Soclai isolation, support, and capital and nutirtional risk in an older sample: Ethnic and gender differences. Social Science & Medicine, 60, 747–761. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​socscimed.​2004.​06.​023. Locher, J. R., Roth, C. S., Sawyer-Baker, P., Bodner, E., & Allman, R. M. (2005). Soclai isolation, support, and capital and nutirtional risk in an older sample: Ethnic and gender differences. Social Science & Medicine, 60, 747–761. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​socscimed.​2004.​06.​023.
go back to reference Major, B., Kaiser, C. R., O’Brien, L. T., & McCoy, S. K. (2007). Perceived discrimination as worldview threat or worldview confirmation: Implications for self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(6), 1068–1086. doi: 10.​1037/​0022-3514.​92.​6.​1068. PubMed Major, B., Kaiser, C. R., O’Brien, L. T., & McCoy, S. K. (2007). Perceived discrimination as worldview threat or worldview confirmation: Implications for self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(6), 1068–1086. doi: 10.​1037/​0022-3514.​92.​6.​1068. PubMed
go back to reference Malat, J., & Hamilton, M. A. (2006). Preference for same-race health care providers and perceptions of interpersonal discrimination in health care. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 47(2), 173–187. PubMed Malat, J., & Hamilton, M. A. (2006). Preference for same-race health care providers and perceptions of interpersonal discrimination in health care. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 47(2), 173–187. PubMed
go back to reference Malat, J., & van Ryn, M. (2005). African-American preference for same-race healthcare providers: The role of healthcare discrimination. Ethnicity & Disease, 15(4), 740–747. Malat, J., & van Ryn, M. (2005). African-American preference for same-race healthcare providers: The role of healthcare discrimination. Ethnicity & Disease, 15(4), 740–747.
go back to reference McNeilly, M. D., Anderson, N. B., Armstead, C. A., Clark, R., Corbett, M., Robinson, E. L., et al. (1996). The percieved racism scale: A multidimensional assessment of the experience of white racism among African Americans. Ethnicity and Disease, 6(1,2), 154–166. PubMed McNeilly, M. D., Anderson, N. B., Armstead, C. A., Clark, R., Corbett, M., Robinson, E. L., et al. (1996). The percieved racism scale: A multidimensional assessment of the experience of white racism among African Americans. Ethnicity and Disease, 6(1,2), 154–166. PubMed
go back to reference Merritt, M. M., Bennett, G. G., Jr, Williams, R. B., Edwards, C. L., & Sollers, J., 3rd. (2006). Perceived racism and cardiovascular reactivity and recovery to personally relevant stress. Health Psychology, 25(3), 364–369. doi: 10.​1037/​0278-6133.​25.​3.​364. PubMed Merritt, M. M., Bennett, G. G., Jr, Williams, R. B., Edwards, C. L., & Sollers, J., 3rd. (2006). Perceived racism and cardiovascular reactivity and recovery to personally relevant stress. Health Psychology, 25(3), 364–369. doi: 10.​1037/​0278-6133.​25.​3.​364. PubMed
go back to reference Miller, G. V., & Travers, C. J. (2005). Ethnicity and the experience of work: Job stress and satisfaction of minority ethnic teachers in the UK. International Review of Psychiatry (Abingdon England), 17(5), 317–327. doi: 10.​1080/​0954026050023847​0. Miller, G. V., & Travers, C. J. (2005). Ethnicity and the experience of work: Job stress and satisfaction of minority ethnic teachers in the UK. International Review of Psychiatry (Abingdon England), 17(5), 317–327. doi: 10.​1080/​0954026050023847​0.
go back to reference Montgomery, E., & Foldspang, A. (2007). Discrimination, mental problems and social adaptation in young refugees. European Journal of Public Health, 18(2), 156–161. PubMed Montgomery, E., & Foldspang, A. (2007). Discrimination, mental problems and social adaptation in young refugees. European Journal of Public Health, 18(2), 156–161. PubMed
go back to reference Moody-Ayers, S. Y., Stewart, A. L., Covinsky, K. E., & Inouye, S. K. (2005). Prevalence and correlates of perceived societal racism in older African-American adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53(12), 2202–2208. doi: 10.​1111/​j.​1532-5415.​2005.​00501.​x. PubMed Moody-Ayers, S. Y., Stewart, A. L., Covinsky, K. E., & Inouye, S. K. (2005). Prevalence and correlates of perceived societal racism in older African-American adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53(12), 2202–2208. doi: 10.​1111/​j.​1532-5415.​2005.​00501.​x. PubMed
go back to reference National Center for Health Statistics. (2007). Health United States, 2007 with Chartbook Trends in the Health of Americans. Hyattsville, MD. National Center for Health Statistics. (2007). Health United States, 2007 with Chartbook Trends in the Health of Americans. Hyattsville, MD.
go back to reference Noh, S., Kaspar, V., & Wickrama, K. A. (2007). Overt and subtle racial discrimination and mental health: Preliminary findings for Korean immigrants. American Journal of Public Health, 97(7), 1269–1274. doi: 10.​2105/​AJPH.​2005.​085316. PubMed Noh, S., Kaspar, V., & Wickrama, K. A. (2007). Overt and subtle racial discrimination and mental health: Preliminary findings for Korean immigrants. American Journal of Public Health, 97(7), 1269–1274. doi: 10.​2105/​AJPH.​2005.​085316. PubMed
go back to reference Pamuk, E., Makuk, D., Heck, K., & Reuben, C. (1998). Socioeconomic status and health chartbook. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Pamuk, E., Makuk, D., Heck, K., & Reuben, C. (1998). Socioeconomic status and health chartbook. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
go back to reference Pantzer, K., Rajmi, L., Tebe, C., Codina, F., Serra-Sutton, V., Ferrer, M., et al. (2006). Health related quality of life in immigrants and native school aged adolescents in Spain. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60(8), 694–698. doi: 10.​1136/​jech.​2005.​044073. PubMed Pantzer, K., Rajmi, L., Tebe, C., Codina, F., Serra-Sutton, V., Ferrer, M., et al. (2006). Health related quality of life in immigrants and native school aged adolescents in Spain. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60(8), 694–698. doi: 10.​1136/​jech.​2005.​044073. PubMed
go back to reference Paradies, Y. (2005). Anti-racism and indigenous Australians. Analysis of Social Issues aand Public Policy, 5(1), 1–28. Paradies, Y. (2005). Anti-racism and indigenous Australians. Analysis of Social Issues aand Public Policy, 5(1), 1–28.
go back to reference Pearlin, L. I., Schieman, S., Fazio, E. M., & Meersman, S. C. (2005). Stress, health, and the life course: Some conceptual perspectives. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46(June), 205–219. PubMed Pearlin, L. I., Schieman, S., Fazio, E. M., & Meersman, S. C. (2005). Stress, health, and the life course: Some conceptual perspectives. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46(June), 205–219. PubMed
go back to reference Peters, R. M., Benkert, R., Dinardo, E., & Templin, T. (2007). Assessing quality of care for African Americans with hypertension. Journal for Healthcare Quality, 29(3), 10–20. PubMed Peters, R. M., Benkert, R., Dinardo, E., & Templin, T. (2007). Assessing quality of care for African Americans with hypertension. Journal for Healthcare Quality, 29(3), 10–20. PubMed
go back to reference Pettigrew, T. F. (1964). Profile of the Negro American. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand. Pettigrew, T. F. (1964). Profile of the Negro American. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.
go back to reference Pieterse, A. L., & Carter, R. T. (2007). An examination of the relationship between general life stress, racism-related stress, and psychological health among black men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(1), 101–109. doi: 10.​1037/​0022-0167.​54.​1.​101. Pieterse, A. L., & Carter, R. T. (2007). An examination of the relationship between general life stress, racism-related stress, and psychological health among black men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(1), 101–109. doi: 10.​1037/​0022-0167.​54.​1.​101.
go back to reference Roberts, C. B., Vines, A. I., Kaufman, J. S., & James, S. A. (2007). Cross-sectional association between perceived discrimination and hypertension in African-American men and women: The Pitt County Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 167(5), 624–632. EPub. PubMed Roberts, C. B., Vines, A. I., Kaufman, J. S., & James, S. A. (2007). Cross-sectional association between perceived discrimination and hypertension in African-American men and women: The Pitt County Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 167(5), 624–632. EPub. PubMed
go back to reference Romero, A. J., Martinez, D., & Carvajal, S. C. (2007). Bicultural stress and adolescent risk behaviors in a community sample of Latinos and non-Latino European Americans. Ethnicity & Health, 12(5), 443–463. doi: 10.​1080/​1355785070161685​4. Romero, A. J., Martinez, D., & Carvajal, S. C. (2007). Bicultural stress and adolescent risk behaviors in a community sample of Latinos and non-Latino European Americans. Ethnicity & Health, 12(5), 443–463. doi: 10.​1080/​1355785070161685​4.
go back to reference Ryan, A. M., Gee, G. C., & Laflamme, D. F. (2006). The Association between self-reported discrimination, physical health and blood pressure: Findings from African Americans, Black immigrants, and Latino immigrants in New Hampshire. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 17(2), 116–132. doi: 10.​1353/​hpu.​2006.​0079. PubMed Ryan, A. M., Gee, G. C., & Laflamme, D. F. (2006). The Association between self-reported discrimination, physical health and blood pressure: Findings from African Americans, Black immigrants, and Latino immigrants in New Hampshire. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 17(2), 116–132. doi: 10.​1353/​hpu.​2006.​0079. PubMed
go back to reference Schulz, A. J., Gravlee, C. C., Williams, D. R., Israel, B. A., Mentz, G., & Rowe, Z. (2006a). Discrimination, symptoms of depression, and self-rated health among african american women in detroit: Results from a longitudinal analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 96(7), 1265–1270. doi: 10.​2105/​AJPH.​2005.​064543. PubMed Schulz, A. J., Gravlee, C. C., Williams, D. R., Israel, B. A., Mentz, G., & Rowe, Z. (2006a). Discrimination, symptoms of depression, and self-rated health among african american women in detroit: Results from a longitudinal analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 96(7), 1265–1270. doi: 10.​2105/​AJPH.​2005.​064543. PubMed
go back to reference Schulz, A. J., Israel, B. A., Zenk, S. N., Parker, E. A., Lichtenstein, R., Shellman-Weir, S., et al. (2006b). Psychosocial stress and social support as mediators of relationships between income, length of residence and depressive symptoms among African American women on Detroit’s eastside. Social Science & Medicine, 62(2), 510–522. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​socscimed.​2005.​06.​028. Schulz, A. J., Israel, B. A., Zenk, S. N., Parker, E. A., Lichtenstein, R., Shellman-Weir, S., et al. (2006b). Psychosocial stress and social support as mediators of relationships between income, length of residence and depressive symptoms among African American women on Detroit’s eastside. Social Science & Medicine, 62(2), 510–522. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​socscimed.​2005.​06.​028.
go back to reference Schulz, A. J., Williams, D. R., Israel, B. A., & Lempert, L. B. (2002). Racial and spatial relations as fundamental determinants of health in Detroit. The Milbank Quarterly, 80(4), 677–707. doi: 10.​1111/​1468-0009.​00028. PubMed Schulz, A. J., Williams, D. R., Israel, B. A., & Lempert, L. B. (2002). Racial and spatial relations as fundamental determinants of health in Detroit. The Milbank Quarterly, 80(4), 677–707. doi: 10.​1111/​1468-0009.​00028. PubMed
go back to reference Schuman, H., Charlotte, S., Larwrence, B., & Maria, K. (1997). Racial attitudes in America: Trends and interpretations (Revised ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Schuman, H., Charlotte, S., Larwrence, B., & Maria, K. (1997). Racial attitudes in America: Trends and interpretations (Revised ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
go back to reference Seeman, T. E., Crimmins, E., Huang, M. H., Singer, B., Bucur, A., Gruenewald, T., et al. (2004). Cumulative biological risk and socio-economic differences in mortality: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Social Science & Medicine, 58, 1985–1997. doi: 10.​1016/​S0277-9536(03)00402-7. Seeman, T. E., Crimmins, E., Huang, M. H., Singer, B., Bucur, A., Gruenewald, T., et al. (2004). Cumulative biological risk and socio-economic differences in mortality: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Social Science & Medicine, 58, 1985–1997. doi: 10.​1016/​S0277-9536(03)00402-7.
go back to reference Sellers, S. L., Bonham, V., Neighbors, H.·W., & Amell, J. W. (2006). Effects of racial discrimination and health behaviors on mental and physical health of middle-class african American Men. Health Education & Behavior, 27. Sellers, S. L., Bonham, V., Neighbors, H.·W., & Amell, J. W. (2006). Effects of racial discrimination and health behaviors on mental and physical health of middle-class african American Men. Health Education & Behavior, 27.
go back to reference Siefert, K., Finlayson, T. L., Williams, D. R., Delva, J., & Ismail, A. I. (2007). Modifiable risk and protective factors for depressive symptoms in low-income African American mothers. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(1), 113–123. doi: 10.​1037/​0002-9432.​77.​1.​113. PubMed Siefert, K., Finlayson, T. L., Williams, D. R., Delva, J., & Ismail, A. I. (2007). Modifiable risk and protective factors for depressive symptoms in low-income African American mothers. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(1), 113–123. doi: 10.​1037/​0002-9432.​77.​1.​113. PubMed
go back to reference Simons, R. L., Simons, L. G., Burt, C. H., Drummund, H., Stewart, E., Brody, G. H., et al. (2006). Supportive parenting moderates the effect of discrimination upon anger, hostile view of relationships, and violence among African American boys. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 47(4), 373–389. PubMedCrossRef Simons, R. L., Simons, L. G., Burt, C. H., Drummund, H., Stewart, E., Brody, G. H., et al. (2006). Supportive parenting moderates the effect of discrimination upon anger, hostile view of relationships, and violence among African American boys. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 47(4), 373–389. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Smedley, B. D., Stith, A. Y., & Nelson, A. R. (2003). Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Smedley, B. D., Stith, A. Y., & Nelson, A. R. (2003). Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
go back to reference Smokowski, P. R., & Bacallao, M. (2007). Acculturation, internalizing mental health symptoms, and self-esteem: Cultural experiences of Latino adolescents in North Carolina. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 37(3), 273–292. doi: 10.​1007/​s10578-006-0035-4. PubMed Smokowski, P. R., & Bacallao, M. (2007). Acculturation, internalizing mental health symptoms, and self-esteem: Cultural experiences of Latino adolescents in North Carolina. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 37(3), 273–292. doi: 10.​1007/​s10578-006-0035-4. PubMed
go back to reference Sohler, N., Li, X., & C, C. (2007). Perceived discrimination among severly disadvantaged people with HIV infection. Public Health Reports, 122(3), 347–355. PubMed Sohler, N., Li, X., & C, C. (2007). Perceived discrimination among severly disadvantaged people with HIV infection. Public Health Reports, 122(3), 347–355. PubMed
go back to reference Stam, R. (2007). PTSD and stress sensitization: A tale of brain and body. Part 1: Human studies. Neuroscience, 31, 530–557. Stam, R. (2007). PTSD and stress sensitization: A tale of brain and body. Part 1: Human studies. Neuroscience, 31, 530–557.
go back to reference Steffen, P. R., & Bowden, M. (2006). Sleep disturbance mediates the relationship between perceived racism and depressive symptoms. Ethnicity & Disease, 16(1), 16–21. Steffen, P. R., & Bowden, M. (2006). Sleep disturbance mediates the relationship between perceived racism and depressive symptoms. Ethnicity & Disease, 16(1), 16–21.
go back to reference Stetler, C., Chen, E., & Miller, G. E. (2006). Written disclosure of experiences with racial discrimination and antibody response to an influenza vaccine. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 13(1), 60–68. doi: 10.​1207/​s15327558ijbm130​1_​8. PubMed Stetler, C., Chen, E., & Miller, G. E. (2006). Written disclosure of experiences with racial discrimination and antibody response to an influenza vaccine. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 13(1), 60–68. doi: 10.​1207/​s15327558ijbm130​1_​8. PubMed
go back to reference Stevens, G. W., Vollebergh, W. A., Pels, T. V., & Crinjnen, A. A. (2005a). Predicting externalizing problems in Moroccan immigrant adolescents in the Netherlands. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40(7), 571–579. doi: 10.​1007/​s00127-005-0926-x. PubMed Stevens, G. W., Vollebergh, W. A., Pels, T. V., & Crinjnen, A. A. (2005a). Predicting externalizing problems in Moroccan immigrant adolescents in the Netherlands. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40(7), 571–579. doi: 10.​1007/​s00127-005-0926-x. PubMed
go back to reference Stevens, G. W., Vollebergh, W. A., Pels, T. V., & Crinjnen, A. A. (2005b). Predicting internalizing problems in Moroccan immigrant adolescents in the Netherlands. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40, 1003–10011. doi: 10.​1007/​s00127-005-0988-9. PubMed Stevens, G. W., Vollebergh, W. A., Pels, T. V., & Crinjnen, A. A. (2005b). Predicting internalizing problems in Moroccan immigrant adolescents in the Netherlands. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40, 1003–10011. doi: 10.​1007/​s00127-005-0988-9. PubMed
go back to reference Sujoldzic, A., Peternel, L., Kulenovic, T., & Terzic, R. (2006). Social determinants of health—a comparative study of Bosnian adolescents in different cultural contexts. Collegium Antropologicum, 30(4), 703–711. PubMed Sujoldzic, A., Peternel, L., Kulenovic, T., & Terzic, R. (2006). Social determinants of health—a comparative study of Bosnian adolescents in different cultural contexts. Collegium Antropologicum, 30(4), 703–711. PubMed
go back to reference Taylor, J., Henderson, D., & Jackson, B. B. (1991). A holistic model for understanding and predicting depression in African American women. Journal of Community Psychology, 19, 306–320. doi :10.1002/1520-6629(199110)19:4<306::AID-JCOP2290190403>3.0.CO;2-Z. Taylor, J., Henderson, D., & Jackson, B. B. (1991). A holistic model for understanding and predicting depression in African American women. Journal of Community Psychology, 19, 306–320. doi :10.1002/1520-6629(199110)19:4<306::AID-JCOP2290190403>3.0.CO;2-Z.
go back to reference Taylor, J., & Jackson, B. (1990). Factors affecting alcohol consumption in black women, Part II. The International Journal of the Addictions, 25(12), 1415–1427. PubMed Taylor, J., & Jackson, B. (1990). Factors affecting alcohol consumption in black women, Part II. The International Journal of the Addictions, 25(12), 1415–1427. PubMed
go back to reference Taylor, T. R., Williams, C. D., Makambi, K. H., Mouton, C., Harrell, J. P., Cozier, Y., et al. (2007). Racial discrimination and breast cancer incidence in US Black women: The Black Women’s Health Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 166(1), 46–54. doi: 10.​1093/​aje/​kwm056. PubMed Taylor, T. R., Williams, C. D., Makambi, K. H., Mouton, C., Harrell, J. P., Cozier, Y., et al. (2007). Racial discrimination and breast cancer incidence in US Black women: The Black Women’s Health Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 166(1), 46–54. doi: 10.​1093/​aje/​kwm056. PubMed
go back to reference Terrell, F., Miller, A. R., Foster, K., & Watkins, C. E., Jr. (2006). Racial discrimination-induced anger and alcohol use among black adolescents. Adolescence, 41(163), 485–492. PubMed Terrell, F., Miller, A. R., Foster, K., & Watkins, C. E., Jr. (2006). Racial discrimination-induced anger and alcohol use among black adolescents. Adolescence, 41(163), 485–492. PubMed
go back to reference Tull, E. S., Cort, M. A., Gwebu, E. T., & Gwebu, K. (2007). Internalized racism is associated with elevated fasting glucose in a sample of adult women but not men in Zimbabwe. Ethnicity & Disease, 17(4), 731–735. Tull, E. S., Cort, M. A., Gwebu, E. T., & Gwebu, K. (2007). Internalized racism is associated with elevated fasting glucose in a sample of adult women but not men in Zimbabwe. Ethnicity & Disease, 17(4), 731–735.
go back to reference Tull, E. S., Wickramasuriya, T., Taylor, J., Smith-Burns, V., Brown, M., Champaigne, G., et al. (1999). Relationship of internalized racism to abdominal obesity and blood pressure in Afro-Caribbean women. Journal of the National Medical Association, 91, 447–452. PubMed Tull, E. S., Wickramasuriya, T., Taylor, J., Smith-Burns, V., Brown, M., Champaigne, G., et al. (1999). Relationship of internalized racism to abdominal obesity and blood pressure in Afro-Caribbean women. Journal of the National Medical Association, 91, 447–452. PubMed
go back to reference Turner, R. J., Wheaton, B., & Lloyd, D. A. (1995). The epidemiology of social stress. American Sociological Review, 60(1), 104–125. doi: 10.​2307/​2096348. Turner, R. J., Wheaton, B., & Lloyd, D. A. (1995). The epidemiology of social stress. American Sociological Review, 60(1), 104–125. doi: 10.​2307/​2096348.
go back to reference Utsey, S. O., & Hook, J. N. (2007). Heart rate variability as a physiological moderator of the relationship between race-related stress and psychological distress in African Americans. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13(3), 250–253. doi: 10.​1037/​1099-9809.​13.​3.​250. Utsey, S. O., & Hook, J. N. (2007). Heart rate variability as a physiological moderator of the relationship between race-related stress and psychological distress in African Americans. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13(3), 250–253. doi: 10.​1037/​1099-9809.​13.​3.​250.
go back to reference Utsey, S. O., Lanier, Y., Williams, O., Bolden, M., & Lee, A. (2006). Moderator effects of cognitive ability and social support on the relation between race-related stress and quality of life in a community sample of black Americans. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12(2), 334–346. doi: 10.​1037/​1099-9809.​12.​2.​334. Utsey, S. O., Lanier, Y., Williams, O., Bolden, M., & Lee, A. (2006). Moderator effects of cognitive ability and social support on the relation between race-related stress and quality of life in a community sample of black Americans. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12(2), 334–346. doi: 10.​1037/​1099-9809.​12.​2.​334.
go back to reference Van Houtven, C. H., Voils, C. I., Oddone, E. Z., Weinfurt, K. P., Friedman, J. Y., Schulman, K. A., et al. (2005). Perceived discrimination and reported delay of pharmacy prescriptions and medical tests. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 20(7), 578–583. doi: 10.​1007/​s11606-005-0104-6. PubMed Van Houtven, C. H., Voils, C. I., Oddone, E. Z., Weinfurt, K. P., Friedman, J. Y., Schulman, K. A., et al. (2005). Perceived discrimination and reported delay of pharmacy prescriptions and medical tests. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 20(7), 578–583. doi: 10.​1007/​s11606-005-0104-6. PubMed
go back to reference Veling, W., Selten, J. P., Susser, E., Laan, W., Mackenbach, J. P., & Hoek, H. W. (2007). Discrimination and the incidence of psychotic disorders among ethnic minorities in The Netherlands. International Journal of Epidemiology, 36(4), 761–768. doi: 10.​1093/​ije/​dym085. PubMed Veling, W., Selten, J. P., Susser, E., Laan, W., Mackenbach, J. P., & Hoek, H. W. (2007). Discrimination and the incidence of psychotic disorders among ethnic minorities in The Netherlands. International Journal of Epidemiology, 36(4), 761–768. doi: 10.​1093/​ije/​dym085. PubMed
go back to reference Vines, A. I., Baird, D. D., McNeilly, M., Hertz-Piccioto, I., Light, K. C., & Stevens, J. (2006). Social correlates of the chronic stress of perceived racism among black women. Ethnicity & Disease, 16(1), 101–107. Vines, A. I., Baird, D. D., McNeilly, M., Hertz-Piccioto, I., Light, K. C., & Stevens, J. (2006). Social correlates of the chronic stress of perceived racism among black women. Ethnicity & Disease, 16(1), 101–107.
go back to reference Vines, A. I., Baird, D. D., Stevens, J., Hertz-Picciotto, I., Light, K. C., & McNeilly, M. (2007). Associations of abdominal fat with perceived racism and passive emotional responses to racism in African American women. American Journal of Public Health, 97(3), 526–530. doi: 10.​2105/​AJPH.​2005.​080663. PubMed Vines, A. I., Baird, D. D., Stevens, J., Hertz-Picciotto, I., Light, K. C., & McNeilly, M. (2007). Associations of abdominal fat with perceived racism and passive emotional responses to racism in African American women. American Journal of Public Health, 97(3), 526–530. doi: 10.​2105/​AJPH.​2005.​080663. PubMed
go back to reference Wadsworth, E., Dillon, K., Shaw, C., Bhui, K., Stansfeld, S., & Smith, A. (2007). Racial discrimination ethnicity and work stress. Occupational Medicine (Oxford, England), 57(1), 18–24. doi: 10.​1093/​occmed/​kql088. Wadsworth, E., Dillon, K., Shaw, C., Bhui, K., Stansfeld, S., & Smith, A. (2007). Racial discrimination ethnicity and work stress. Occupational Medicine (Oxford, England), 57(1), 18–24. doi: 10.​1093/​occmed/​kql088.
go back to reference Wagner, J., & Abbott, G. (2007). Depression and depression care in diabetes: Relationship to perceived discrimination in African Americans. Diabetes Care, 30(2), 364–366. doi: 10.​2337/​dc06-1756. PubMed Wagner, J., & Abbott, G. (2007). Depression and depression care in diabetes: Relationship to perceived discrimination in African Americans. Diabetes Care, 30(2), 364–366. doi: 10.​2337/​dc06-1756. PubMed
go back to reference Wamala, S., Boström, G., & Nyqvist, K. (2007b). Perceived discrimination and psychological distress in Sweden. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 75–76. Wamala, S., Boström, G., & Nyqvist, K. (2007b). Perceived discrimination and psychological distress in Sweden. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 75–76.
go back to reference Wamala, S., Merlo, J., Boström, G., & Hogstedt, C. (2007a). Perceived discrimination, socioeconomic disadvantage and refraining from seeking medical treatment in Sweden. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61(5), 409–415. doi: 10.​1136/​jech.​2006.​049999. PubMed Wamala, S., Merlo, J., Boström, G., & Hogstedt, C. (2007a). Perceived discrimination, socioeconomic disadvantage and refraining from seeking medical treatment in Sweden. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61(5), 409–415. doi: 10.​1136/​jech.​2006.​049999. PubMed
go back to reference Williams, D. R. (2004). Racism and Health. In K. E. Whitfield (Ed.), Closing the Gap: Improving the Health of Minority Elders in the New Millenium (pp. 69–80). Washington, D.C: Gerontological Society of America. Williams, D. R. (2004). Racism and Health. In K. E. Whitfield (Ed.), Closing the Gap: Improving the Health of Minority Elders in the New Millenium (pp. 69–80). Washington, D.C: Gerontological Society of America.
go back to reference Williams, D. R. (2005). The health of U.S. racial and ethnic populations. Journals of Gerontology: Series B 60B (Special Issue II):53–62. Williams, D. R. (2005). The health of U.S. racial and ethnic populations. Journals of Gerontology: Series B 60B (Special Issue II):53–62.
go back to reference Williams, D. R., & Collins, C. A. (2001). Racial residential segregation: A fundamental cause of racial disparities in health. Public Health Reports, 116, 404–415. PubMed Williams, D. R., & Collins, C. A. (2001). Racial residential segregation: A fundamental cause of racial disparities in health. Public Health Reports, 116, 404–415. PubMed
go back to reference Williams D, Gonzalez H, Williams S, Mohammed S, Moomal H, Stein D. (2008) Perceived discrimination, race, and health in South Africa. Social Science & Medicine, 67, 441–452. Williams D, Gonzalez H, Williams S, Mohammed S, Moomal H, Stein D. (2008) Perceived discrimination, race, and health in South Africa. Social Science & Medicine, 67, 441–452.
go back to reference Williams, D. R., & Neighbors, H. W. (2001). Racism, discrimination and hypertension: Evidence and needed research. Ethnicity & Disease, 11, 800–816. Williams, D. R., & Neighbors, H. W. (2001). Racism, discrimination and hypertension: Evidence and needed research. Ethnicity & Disease, 11, 800–816.
go back to reference Williams, D. R., Neighbors, H. W., & Jackson, J. S. (2003). Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: Findings from community studies. American Journal of Public Health, 93(2), 200–208. PubMedCrossRef Williams, D. R., Neighbors, H. W., & Jackson, J. S. (2003). Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: Findings from community studies. American Journal of Public Health, 93(2), 200–208. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Williams, D. R., Spencer, M., & Jackson, J. S. (1999). Race, stress, and physical health: The role of group identity. In R. J. Contrada & R. D. Ashmore (Eds.), Self, Social Identity, and Physical Health: Interdisciplinary Explorations (pp. 71–100). New York: Oxford University Press. Williams, D. R., Spencer, M., & Jackson, J. S. (1999). Race, stress, and physical health: The role of group identity. In R. J. Contrada & R. D. Ashmore (Eds.), Self, Social Identity, and Physical Health: Interdisciplinary Explorations (pp. 71–100). New York: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Williams, D. R., Yu, Y., Jackson, J., & Anderson, N. (1997). Racial differences in physical and mental health: Socioeconomic status, stress, and discrimination. Journal of Health Psychology, 2(3), 335–351. doi: 10.​1177/​1359105397002003​05. Williams, D. R., Yu, Y., Jackson, J., & Anderson, N. (1997). Racial differences in physical and mental health: Socioeconomic status, stress, and discrimination. Journal of Health Psychology, 2(3), 335–351. doi: 10.​1177/​1359105397002003​05.
go back to reference Wise, L. A., Palmer, J. R., Cozier, Y. C., Hunt, M. O., Stewart, E. A., & Rosenberg, L. (2007). Perceived racial discrimination and risk of uterine leiomyomata. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass), 18(6), 747–757. Wise, L. A., Palmer, J. R., Cozier, Y. C., Hunt, M. O., Stewart, E. A., & Rosenberg, L. (2007). Perceived racial discrimination and risk of uterine leiomyomata. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass), 18(6), 747–757.
go back to reference Wyatt, S. B., Williams, D. R., Calvin, R., Henderson, F., Walker, E., & Winters, K. (2003). Racism and cardiovascular disease in African Americans: Evidence and implications for the Jackson Heart Study. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 325(6), 315–331. doi: 10.​1097/​00000441-200306000-00003. PubMed Wyatt, S. B., Williams, D. R., Calvin, R., Henderson, F., Walker, E., & Winters, K. (2003). Racism and cardiovascular disease in African Americans: Evidence and implications for the Jackson Heart Study. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 325(6), 315–331. doi: 10.​1097/​00000441-200306000-00003. PubMed
go back to reference Young, M., Stuber, J., Ahern, J., & Galea, S. (2005). Interpersonal discrimination and the health of illicit drug users. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 31(3), 371–391. doi: 10.​1081/​ADA-200056772. PubMed Young, M., Stuber, J., Ahern, J., & Galea, S. (2005). Interpersonal discrimination and the health of illicit drug users. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 31(3), 371–391. doi: 10.​1081/​ADA-200056772. PubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
Discrimination and racial disparities in health: evidence and needed research
Auteurs
David R. Williams
Selina A. Mohammed
Publicatiedatum
01-02-2009
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Behavioral Medicine / Uitgave 1/2009
Print ISSN: 0160-7715
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3521
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-008-9185-0