Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Five experiments examined whether affective consequences become associated with the responses producing them and whether anticipations of positive and negative action outcomes influence action control differently. In a learning phase, one response produced pleasant and another response unpleasant visual effects. In a subsequent test phase, the same actions were carried out in response to a neutral feature of affective stimuli. Results showed that responses were faster when the irrelevant valence of the response cue matched the valence of the response outcome, but only when the responses still produced outcomes. These results suggest that affective action consequences have a directive function in that they facilitate the selection of the associated response over other responses, even when the response outcome is unpleasant (Experiment 4A). Results of another experiment showed that affective action consequences can also have an incentive function in that responses with pleasant outcomes are generally facilitated relative to responses with unpleasant outcomes. However, this motivational effect was seen only in a free-choice test (Experiment 5). The results suggest that behavioral impulses induced by ideomotor processes are constrained by the motivational evaluation of the anticipated action outcome. A model that integrates motivational factors into ideomotor theory is presented.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Adams, C. D., & Dickinson, A. (1981). Instrumental responding following reinforcer devaluation. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 33B, 109–121. CrossRef
Allman, M. J., DeLeon, I. G., Cataldo, M. F., Holland, P. C., & Johnson, A. W. (2010). Learning processes affecting human decision making: an assessment of reinforcer-selective Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer following reinforcer devaluation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 36, 402–408. PubMed
Berridge, K. C. (2001). Reward learning: Reinforcement, incentives, and expectations. In D. L. Medin (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 40, pp. 223–278). San Diego: Academic Press.
Bouton, M. E. (1994). Conditioning, remembering, and forgetting. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 20, 219–231.
Bouton, M. E., & Bolles, R. C. (1980). Conditioned fear assessed by freezing and by the suppression of three different baselines. Animal Learning & Behavior, 8, 429–434. CrossRef
Bradley, M. M., Moulder, B., & Lang, P. J. (2005). When good things go bad: the reflex physiology of defense. Psychological Science, 16, 468–473. PubMed
Colwill, R. M., & Rescorla, R. A. (1985). Postconditioning devaluation of a reinforcer affects instrumental responding. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 11, 120–132.
Colwill, R. M., & Rescorla, R. A. (1988). Associations between the discriminative stimulus and the reinforcer in instrumental learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 14, 155–164.
Crosbie, J. (1998). Negative reinforcement and punishment. In K. A. Lattal & M. Perone (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in human operant behaviour (pp. 163–189). New York: Plenum Press. CrossRef
Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Avon Books Inc.
Eder, A. B., & Hommel, B. (2013). Anticipatory control of approach and avoidance: an ideomotor approach. Emotion Review, 5, 276–280.
Eder, A. B., & Klauer, K. C. (2009). A common-coding account of the bidirectional evaluation–behavior link. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 138, 218–235. CrossRef
Elsner, B., & Hommel, B. (2001). Effect anticipation and action control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27, 229–240. PubMed
Hagenaars, M. A., Stins, J. F., & Roelofs, K. (2012). Aversive life events enhance human freezing responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141, 98–105. CrossRef
Hall, G. (2002). Associative structures in Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. In H. Pashler & R. Gallistel (Eds.), Steven’s handbook of experimental psychology (3rd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 1–45)., Learning, motivation, and emotion Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Hogarth, L., & Chase, H. W. (2011). Parallel goal-directed and habitual control of human drug-seeking: implications for dependence vulnerability. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 37, 261–276. PubMed
Hommel, B. (2013). Ideomotor action control: On the perceptual grounding of voluntary actions and agents. In W. Prinz, M. Beisert, & A. Herwig (Eds.), Action science: Foundations of an emerging discipline (pp. 113–136). Cambridge: MIT Press.
Klossek, U. M. H., Russell, J., & Dickinson, A. (2008). The control of instrumental action following outcome devaluation in young children aged between 1 and 4 years. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 137, 39–51. CrossRef
Knutson, B., & Greer, S. M. (2008). Anticipatory affect: neural correlates and consequences for choice. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 363, 3771–3786. CrossRef
Kunde, W. (2001). Response-effect compatibility in manual choice reaction tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27, 387–394 PubMed
Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., & Cuthbert, B. N. (2005). International affective picture system (IAPS): Affective ratings of pictures and instruction manual. Technical Report A- 6.
Muenzinger, K. F. (1934). Motivation in learning. I. Electric shock for correct response in the visual discrimination habit. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 17, 267–277. CrossRef
Muhle-Karbe, P. S., & Krebs, R. M. (2012). On the influence of reward on action-effect binding. Frontiers in Cognition,. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00450.
Papini, M. R., & Dudley, R. T. (1997). Consequences of surprising reward omissions. Review of General Psychology, 1, 175–197. CrossRef
Rescorla, R. A. (1993). Preservation of response-outcome associations through extinction. Animal Learning & Behavior, 21, 238–245. CrossRef
Rescorla, R. A. (1998). Instrumental learning: Nature and persistence. In M. Sabourin, F. Craik, & M. Robert (Eds.), Advances in psychological science (2nd ed., pp. 239–257)., Biological and cognitive aspects Hove: Psychology Press.
Schwibbe, M., Röder, K., Schwibbe, G., Borchardt, M., & Geiken-Pophanken, G. (1981). Zum emotionalen Gehalt von Substantiven, Adjektiven und Verben [The emotional contents of nouns, adjectives, and verbs]. Zeitschrift für experimentelle und angewandte Psychologie, 28, 486–501.
Shanks, D. R. (1993). Human instrumental learning: a critical review of data and theory. British Journal of Psychology, 84, 3–19. CrossRef
Thorndike, E. L. (1911). Animal intelligence: Experimental studies. New York: Macmillan. CrossRef
Toates, F. (1986). Motivational systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tolman, E. C., Hall, C. S., & Bretnall, E. P. (1932). A disproof of the law of effect and a substitution of the laws of emphasis, motivation and disruption. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 15, 601–614. CrossRef
Trapold, M. A., & Overmier, J. B. (1972). The second learning process in instrumental learning. In A. H. Black & W. F. Prokasy (Eds.), Classical conditioning II: Current theory and research (pp. 427–452). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Tukey, J. W. (1977). Exploratory data analysis. Reading: Addison-Wesley.
Urcuioli, P. J. (2005). Behavioral and associative effects of differential outcomes in discrimination learning. Learning & Behavior, 33, 1–21. CrossRef
Walker, E. L. (1969). Reinforcement: The one ring. In J. T. Tapp (Ed.), Reinforcement and behavior (pp. 47–62). New York: Academic Press. CrossRef
Wilkowski, B. M., & Robinson, M. D. (2006). Stopping dead in one’s tracks: motor inhibition following incidental evaluations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 479–490. CrossRef
- Directive and incentive functions of affective action consequences: an ideomotor approach
Andreas B. Eder
Jan De Houwer
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg