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06-06-2017 | Original Paper | Uitgave 9/2017

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 9/2017

Diagnostic Substitution for Intellectual Disability: A Flawed Explanation for the Rise in Autism

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders > Uitgave 9/2017
Cynthia D. Nevison, Mark Blaxill
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s10803-017-3187-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.


Time trends in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) prevalence from the United States Individuals with Disabilities Education Act data were computed from 2000 to 2011 for each state and each age from 6 to 17. These trends did not support the hypothesis that diagnostic substitution for ID can explain the ASD rise over recent decades, although the hypothesis appeared more plausible when the data were aggregated across all states and ages. Nationwide ID prevalence declined steeply over the last two decades, but the decline was driven mainly by ~15 states accounting for only one-fourth of the U.S. school population. More commonly, including in the most populous states, ID prevalence stayed relatively constant while ASD prevalence rose sharply.

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Extra materiaal
Supplementary material 1 Figure S1 (DOCX 594 KB)
Supplementary material 2 Figure S2 (DOCX 467 KB)
Supplementary material 3 Figure S3 (DOCX 232 KB)
Supplementary material 4 Figure S4 (DOCX 248 KB)
Supplementary material 5 Figure S5 (DOCX 574 KB)
Supplementary material 6 ASD counts (XLSX 147 KB)
Supplementary material 7 ID counts (XLSX 113 KB)
Supplementary material 8 SLD counts (XLSX 141 KB)
Supplementary material 9 DD counts (XLSX 143 KB)
Supplementary material 10 OHI counts (XLSX 148 KB)
Supplementary material 11 NCES school populations (XLSX 160 KB)
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