Little is known about the association of psychosocial factors with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among American Indians with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study described functional social support, emotional support, coping, resilience, post-traumatic stress disorder, and HRQoL, among American Indians by diabetes status and, among those with diabetes, examined the association of these factors with HRQoL.
Using data from the Cherokee Nation Health Survey collected between 2017 and 2019, we evaluated differences in each measure of interest according to diabetes status, using t-test and Chi-squared tests of association. We used weighted multiple logistic regression to examine associations between multiple psychosocial factors and HRQoL among those with diabetes.
Compared to individuals without diabetes, participants with diabetes rated their functional social support (4.62 vs. 4.56, respectively) and coping (2.65 vs. 2.61, respectively) slightly lower and were more likely to report ≥ 15 days of poor physical (14% vs. 26%, respectively) and mental health (14% vs. 17%, respectively) in the past month. Odds of reporting poor overall health increased more than sixfold for those who were dissatisfied/very dissatisfied with life (AOR = 6.70). Resilience scores reduced odds of reporting ≥ 15 days with poor physical health, while experiences of post-traumatic stress doubled these odds.
Our study yielded insights into the risk as well as protective factors associated with diabetes outcomes in a large sample of American Indians with T2D. Researchers should design pragmatic trials that deepen understanding of preventive as well as treatment leverage through greater attention to experiences that compromise HRQoL.