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Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence 5/2014

01-05-2014 | Empirical Research

Developmental Trajectories and Predictors of Externalizing Behavior: A Comparison of Girls and Boys

Auteurs: Carolin Fernandez Castelao, Birgit Kröner-Herwig

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence | Uitgave 5/2014

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Abstract

Recent studies have shown that the development of externalizing behavior in childhood and adolescence can be described through different developmental pathways. However, knowledge about differences between the sexes regarding the trajectories is limited. This study focused on potential differences by examining the trajectories of self-reported externalizing symptoms for girls and boys separately. In addition, the relationships of several familiar and child-specific variables with those developmental courses were assessed. The study was conducted on a large community sample of German youths (N = 3,893; mean age 11.38 years; 50 % girls) over 4 years. Using growth mixture modeling, three different classes of trajectories were found for both sexes. The classes differed with regard to the level and the course of symptoms (“low”, “moderate”, “high-decreasing”). Girls were overrepresented in the “low” class, whereas boys were predominant in the “moderate” and “high-decreasing” classes. The multiple group analysis revealed that the girls and boys differed significantly in their level and linear course of symptoms with regard to the “high-decreasing” class. In contrast, no sex differences were found in the growth factors of the “low” and “moderate” classes. The regression analyses showed that the children’s depressive symptoms, dysfunctional parenting style, and negative family climate were associated significantly with the level and course of symptoms as well as the class membership of girls and boys. Life events predicted class membership only for boys, whereas maternal depressive symptoms and family conflict did not demonstrate any significant relationship. The sizes of the predictive associations with the growth factors were similar for both sexes. The results are discussed with regard to existing developmental models and their possible implications for prevention and future research.
Voetnoten
1
Because it was not possible to revert to standardized norms, symptoms were grouped into three levels using the mean (M = 1.70) and standard deviation (SD = 0.56) of symptoms in the total sample at the first wave as reference.
 
2
The terms “predictor” and “predicted” are used in a statistical sense and do not imply causality.
 
3
Since the age of children can be important in the development of symptoms, we intended to examine its influence in prior analyses. However, these analyses showed that “age” neither was related significantly to the growth factors or to class membership nor did the inclusion result in changes of the associations with the other predictors. Thus, we decided to not include this demographic variable in our models.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Developmental Trajectories and Predictors of Externalizing Behavior: A Comparison of Girls and Boys
Auteurs
Carolin Fernandez Castelao
Birgit Kröner-Herwig
Publicatiedatum
01-05-2014
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Youth and Adolescence / Uitgave 5/2014
Print ISSN: 0047-2891
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-6601
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-013-0011-9