Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

01-02-2010

Developmental Precursors of Moral Disengagement and the Role of Moral Disengagement in the Development of Antisocial Behavior

Auteurs: Luke W. Hyde, Daniel S. Shaw, Kristin L. Moilanen

Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology | Uitgave 2/2010

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to advance our understanding of the developmental precursors of Moral Disengagement (MD) and the role of MD in the development of antisocial behavior from early risk among an ethnically diverse sample of 187 low-income boys followed prospectively from ages 1.5 to 17. Results indicated associations between early rejecting parenting, neighborhood impoverishment, and child empathy and later MD. The link between some of these early constructs and later antisocial behavior was mediated by MD. Finally, in an exploratory path model both MD and biases in social information processing were found to mediate separate paths from early risk factors to later antisocial behavior. Results were partially consistent with the notion that adolescent MD was predicted by a combination of early family, neighborhood, and child risk factors, and that MD may be a mechanism underlying some boys’ risk of antisocial behavior.
Voetnoten
1
It should be noted that the pattern of results was similar when not controlling for early externalizing behavior, although in some cases the relationships between variables was stronger when controlling for this early behavior.
 
2
Given the longitudinal nature of this project, this question was addressed by computing a similar regression to predict MD using the same or similar predictor variables all assessed at age 12: empathy, inter-parental aggression, parental knowledge (see Trentacosta et al. 2009), and neighborhood impoverishment. In this regression, empathy continued to be the strongest predictor of MD, albeit the relationship between MD and neighborhood impoverishment was stronger using age 12 versus age 6–10 data.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms and profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms and profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry.
go back to reference Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the street: Decency, violence, and the moral life of the inner city. New York: Norton. Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the street: Decency, violence, and the moral life of the inner city. New York: Norton.
go back to reference Arsenio, W. F., & Lemerise, E. A. (2004). Aggression and moral development: integrating social information processing and moral domain models. Child Development, 75, 987–1002.CrossRefPubMed Arsenio, W. F., & Lemerise, E. A. (2004). Aggression and moral development: integrating social information processing and moral domain models. Child Development, 75, 987–1002.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bandura, A., Capara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Mechanisms of moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 364–374.CrossRef Bandura, A., Capara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Mechanisms of moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 364–374.CrossRef
go back to reference Bandura, A., Capara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Pastorelli, C., & Regalia, C. (2001). Sociocognitive self-regulatory mechanisms governing transgressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 125–135.CrossRefPubMed Bandura, A., Capara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Pastorelli, C., & Regalia, C. (2001). Sociocognitive self-regulatory mechanisms governing transgressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 125–135.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Barnes, G. M., Welte, J. W., Hoffman, J. H., & Dintcheff, D. A. (2005). Shared predictors of youthful gambling, substance use, and delinquency. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19, 165–174.CrossRefPubMed Barnes, G. M., Welte, J. W., Hoffman, J. H., & Dintcheff, D. A. (2005). Shared predictors of youthful gambling, substance use, and delinquency. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19, 165–174.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.CrossRefPubMed Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Caldwell, B. M., & Bradley, R. H. (1984). The HOME inventory and family demographics. Developmental Psychology, 20, 315–320.CrossRef Caldwell, B. M., & Bradley, R. H. (1984). The HOME inventory and family demographics. Developmental Psychology, 20, 315–320.CrossRef
go back to reference Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah: Erlbaum. Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah: Erlbaum.
go back to reference Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children’s social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74–101.CrossRef Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children’s social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74–101.CrossRef
go back to reference Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1996). Social information-processing mechanisms in reactive and proactive aggression. Child Development, 67, 993–1002.CrossRefPubMed Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1996). Social information-processing mechanisms in reactive and proactive aggression. Child Development, 67, 993–1002.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Criss, M., & Shaw, D. S. (2003). Parent–child synchrony and antisocial behavior in middle childhood. Social Development, 12, 379–400.CrossRef Criss, M., & Shaw, D. S. (2003). Parent–child synchrony and antisocial behavior in middle childhood. Social Development, 12, 379–400.CrossRef
go back to reference Cummings, J. S., Pelligrini, D. S., Notarius, C. I., & Cummings, E. M. (1989). Children’s responses to angry adult behavior as a function of marital distress and history of interparent hostility. Child Development, 60, 1035–1043.CrossRefPubMed Cummings, J. S., Pelligrini, D. S., Notarius, C. I., & Cummings, E. M. (1989). Children’s responses to angry adult behavior as a function of marital distress and history of interparent hostility. Child Development, 60, 1035–1043.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Dearing, E., & Hamilton, L. C. (2006). Contemporary advances and classic advice for analyzing mediating and moderating variables. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 71, 88–104. Dearing, E., & Hamilton, L. C. (2006). Contemporary advances and classic advice for analyzing mediating and moderating variables. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 71, 88–104.
go back to reference Dodge, K. A., & Coie, J. D. (1987). Social information processing factors in reactive and proactive aggression in children’s peer groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 1146–1158.CrossRefPubMed Dodge, K. A., & Coie, J. D. (1987). Social information processing factors in reactive and proactive aggression in children’s peer groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 1146–1158.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Dodge, K. A., & Somberg, D. R. (1987). Hostile attributional biases among aggressive boys are exacerbated under conditions of threats to the self. Child Development, 58, 213–224.CrossRefPubMed Dodge, K. A., & Somberg, D. R. (1987). Hostile attributional biases among aggressive boys are exacerbated under conditions of threats to the self. Child Development, 58, 213–224.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., & Valente, E. (1995). Social information-processing patterns partially mediate the effect of early physical abuse on later conduct problems. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104(4), 632–643.CrossRefPubMed Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., & Valente, E. (1995). Social information-processing patterns partially mediate the effect of early physical abuse on later conduct problems. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104(4), 632–643.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Dodge, K. A., Lochman, J. E., Harnish, J. D., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1997). Reactive and proactive aggression in school children and psychiatrically impaired chronically assaultive youth. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106(1), 37–51.CrossRefPubMed Dodge, K. A., Lochman, J. E., Harnish, J. D., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1997). Reactive and proactive aggression in school children and psychiatrically impaired chronically assaultive youth. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106(1), 37–51.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Elliot, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S. S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Elliot, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S. S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
go back to reference Fantuzzo, J. W., DePaola, L. M., Lambert, L., Martino, T., Anderson, G., & Sutton, S. (1991). Effects of interparental violence on the psychological adjustment and competencies of young children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 39, 258–265.CrossRef Fantuzzo, J. W., DePaola, L. M., Lambert, L., Martino, T., Anderson, G., & Sutton, S. (1991). Effects of interparental violence on the psychological adjustment and competencies of young children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 39, 258–265.CrossRef
go back to reference Fontaine, R. G., Yang, C., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (2009). Development of response evaluation and decision (RED) and antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 45, 447–459.CrossRefPubMed Fontaine, R. G., Yang, C., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (2009). Development of response evaluation and decision (RED) and antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 45, 447–459.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Frick, P. J., & White, S. F. (2008). Research review: the importance of callous-unemotional traits for developmental models of aggressive and antisocial behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(4), 359–375.CrossRefPubMed Frick, P. J., & White, S. F. (2008). Research review: the importance of callous-unemotional traits for developmental models of aggressive and antisocial behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(4), 359–375.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley: University of California. Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley: University of California.
go back to reference Huesmann, L. R. (1998). The role of social information processing and cognitive schema in the acquisition and maintenance of habitual aggressive behavior. In R. G. Geen & E. Donnerstein (Eds.), Human aggression: Theories, research, and implications for social policy (pp. 73–109). San Diego: Academic. Huesmann, L. R. (1998). The role of social information processing and cognitive schema in the acquisition and maintenance of habitual aggressive behavior. In R. G. Geen & E. Donnerstein (Eds.), Human aggression: Theories, research, and implications for social policy (pp. 73–109). San Diego: Academic.
go back to reference Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford. Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Knafo, A., Zahn-Waxler, C., Van Hulle, C., Robinson, J. L., & Rhee, S. H. (2008). The developmental origins of a disposition toward empathy: genetic and environmental contributions. Emotion, 3, 737–752.CrossRef Knafo, A., Zahn-Waxler, C., Van Hulle, C., Robinson, J. L., & Rhee, S. H. (2008). The developmental origins of a disposition toward empathy: genetic and environmental contributions. Emotion, 3, 737–752.CrossRef
go back to reference Kochanska, G. (1997a). Multiple pathways to conscience for children with different temperaments: from toddlerhood to age 5. Developmental Psychology, 33, 228–240.CrossRefPubMed Kochanska, G. (1997a). Multiple pathways to conscience for children with different temperaments: from toddlerhood to age 5. Developmental Psychology, 33, 228–240.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kochanska, G. (1997b). Mutually responsive orientation between mothers and their young children: implications for early socialization. Child Development, 68, 94–112.CrossRefPubMed Kochanska, G. (1997b). Mutually responsive orientation between mothers and their young children: implications for early socialization. Child Development, 68, 94–112.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kochanska, G. (2002). Committed compliance, moral self, and internalization: a mediational model. Developmental Psychology, 38, 339–351.CrossRefPubMed Kochanska, G. (2002). Committed compliance, moral self, and internalization: a mediational model. Developmental Psychology, 38, 339–351.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kohlberg, K. R. (1969). Continuities and discontinuities in childhood and adult moral development. Human Development, 12, 3–120.CrossRef Kohlberg, K. R. (1969). Continuities and discontinuities in childhood and adult moral development. Human Development, 12, 3–120.CrossRef
go back to reference Lahey, B. B., Applegate, D., Chronis, A. M., Jones, H. A., Williams, S. H., Loney, J., et al. (2008). Psychometric characteristics of a measure of emotional dispositions developed to test a developmental propensity model of conduct disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 794–807.CrossRefPubMed Lahey, B. B., Applegate, D., Chronis, A. M., Jones, H. A., Williams, S. H., Loney, J., et al. (2008). Psychometric characteristics of a measure of emotional dispositions developed to test a developmental propensity model of conduct disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 794–807.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). The neighborhoods they live in: the effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 309–337.CrossRefPubMed Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). The neighborhoods they live in: the effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 309–337.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., Hoffman, J. M., West, S. G., & Sheets, V. (2002). A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological Methods, 7, 83–104.CrossRefPubMed MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., Hoffman, J. M., West, S. G., & Sheets, V. (2002). A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological Methods, 7, 83–104.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Michalik, N. M., Eisenberg, N., Spinard, T. L., Ladd, B., Thompson, M., & Valiente, C. (2007). Longitudinal relations among parental emotional expressivity and sympathy and prosocial behavior in adolescence. Social Development, 16, 286–309.CrossRefPubMed Michalik, N. M., Eisenberg, N., Spinard, T. L., Ladd, B., Thompson, M., & Valiente, C. (2007). Longitudinal relations among parental emotional expressivity and sympathy and prosocial behavior in adolescence. Social Development, 16, 286–309.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Mulford, C. F. (2004). Restorative justice and the development of empathy, remorse and moral disengagement in adolescent offenders. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Virginia, 2004). Dissertation Abstracts International, 64, 5256. Mulford, C. F. (2004). Restorative justice and the development of empathy, remorse and moral disengagement in adolescent offenders. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Virginia, 2004). Dissertation Abstracts International, 64, 5256.
go back to reference Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2004). Mplus user’s guide (4th ed.). Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2004). Mplus user’s guide (4th ed.). Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.
go back to reference Orbio de Castro, B., Veerman, J. W., Koops, W., Bosch, J. D., & Monshouwer, H. J. (2002). Hostile attribution of intent and aggressive behavior: a meta-analysis. Child Development, 3, 916–934.CrossRef Orbio de Castro, B., Veerman, J. W., Koops, W., Bosch, J. D., & Monshouwer, H. J. (2002). Hostile attribution of intent and aggressive behavior: a meta-analysis. Child Development, 3, 916–934.CrossRef
go back to reference Osofsky, M. J., Bandura, A., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2005). The role of moral disengagement in the execution process. Law and Human Behavior, 29, 371–393.CrossRefPubMed Osofsky, M. J., Bandura, A., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2005). The role of moral disengagement in the execution process. Law and Human Behavior, 29, 371–393.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Owens, E. B., & Shaw, D. S. (2003). Predicting growth curves of externalizing behavior across the preschool years. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 575–590.CrossRefPubMed Owens, E. B., & Shaw, D. S. (2003). Predicting growth curves of externalizing behavior across the preschool years. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 575–590.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Paciello, M., Fida, R., Tramontano, C., Lupinetti, C., & Caprara, G. V. (2008). Stability and change of moral disengagement and its impact on aggression and violence in late adolescence. Child Development, 79, 1288–1309.CrossRefPubMed Paciello, M., Fida, R., Tramontano, C., Lupinetti, C., & Caprara, G. V. (2008). Stability and change of moral disengagement and its impact on aggression and violence in late adolescence. Child Development, 79, 1288–1309.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Pelton, J., Gound, M., Forehand, R., & Brody, G. (2004). The moral disengagement scale: extension with an American minority sample. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavior Assessment, 26, 31–39.CrossRef Pelton, J., Gound, M., Forehand, R., & Brody, G. (2004). The moral disengagement scale: extension with an American minority sample. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavior Assessment, 26, 31–39.CrossRef
go back to reference Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 717–731. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 717–731.
go back to reference Rogers, M. K. (2001). A social learning theory and moral disengagement analysis of criminal computer behavior: An exploratory study. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Manitoba, 2001). Dissertation Abstracts International, 64, 5256. Rogers, M. K. (2001). A social learning theory and moral disengagement analysis of criminal computer behavior: An exploratory study. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Manitoba, 2001). Dissertation Abstracts International, 64, 5256.
go back to reference Sattler, J. M. (1992). Assessment of children (3rd ed.). San Diego: Jerome M. Sattler, Inc. Sattler, J. M. (1992). Assessment of children (3rd ed.). San Diego: Jerome M. Sattler, Inc.
go back to reference Schultz, D., & Shaw, D. S. (2003). Boys’ maladaptive social information processing: a step on the pathway from early family risk to later conduct problems? Social Development, 12, 440–460.CrossRef Schultz, D., & Shaw, D. S. (2003). Boys’ maladaptive social information processing: a step on the pathway from early family risk to later conduct problems? Social Development, 12, 440–460.CrossRef
go back to reference Shaw, D. S., Gilliom, M., Ingoldsby, E. M., & Nagin, D. (2003). Trajectories leading to school-age conduct problems. Developmental Psychology, 39, 189–200.CrossRefPubMed Shaw, D. S., Gilliom, M., Ingoldsby, E. M., & Nagin, D. (2003). Trajectories leading to school-age conduct problems. Developmental Psychology, 39, 189–200.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Shaw, D. S., Lacourse, E., & Nagin, D. S. (2004). Developmental trajectories of conduct problems and hyperactivity from ages 2 to 10. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1–12.CrossRef Shaw, D. S., Lacourse, E., & Nagin, D. S. (2004). Developmental trajectories of conduct problems and hyperactivity from ages 2 to 10. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1–12.CrossRef
go back to reference Straus, M. A. (1979). Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: the conflict tactics scales. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 41, 75–88.CrossRef Straus, M. A. (1979). Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: the conflict tactics scales. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 41, 75–88.CrossRef
go back to reference Straus, M. A. (1991). Family violence in American families: Incidence rates, causes, and trends. In D. D. Knudsen & J. L. Miller (Eds.), Abused and battered: Social and legal responses of family violence (pp. 17–34). New York: Aldine de Gruyter. Straus, M. A. (1991). Family violence in American families: Incidence rates, causes, and trends. In D. D. Knudsen & J. L. Miller (Eds.), Abused and battered: Social and legal responses of family violence (pp. 17–34). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
go back to reference Trentacosta, C. J., Hyde, L. W., Shaw, D. S., & Cheong, J. (2009). Adolescent dispositions for antisocial behavior in context: the roles of neighborhood dangerousness and parental knowledge. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 564–75.CrossRefPubMed Trentacosta, C. J., Hyde, L. W., Shaw, D. S., & Cheong, J. (2009). Adolescent dispositions for antisocial behavior in context: the roles of neighborhood dangerousness and parental knowledge. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 564–75.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Vanderbilt-Adriance, E., & Shaw, D. S. (2008). Protective factors and the development of resilience in the context of neighborhood poverty. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 887–901.CrossRefPubMed Vanderbilt-Adriance, E., & Shaw, D. S. (2008). Protective factors and the development of resilience in the context of neighborhood poverty. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 887–901.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., & Barker, E. D. (2006). Subtypes of aggressive behaviors: a developmental perspective. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30, 12–19.CrossRef Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., & Barker, E. D. (2006). Subtypes of aggressive behaviors: a developmental perspective. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30, 12–19.CrossRef
go back to reference Vollum, S., Buffinton-Vollum, J., & Longmire, D. R. (2004). Moral disengagement and attitudes about violence toward animals. Society and Animals, 12, 209–235.CrossRef Vollum, S., Buffinton-Vollum, J., & Longmire, D. R. (2004). Moral disengagement and attitudes about violence toward animals. Society and Animals, 12, 209–235.CrossRef
go back to reference Wechsler, D. (1991). Wechsler intelligence scale for children-III. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation. Wechsler, D. (1991). Wechsler intelligence scale for children-III. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.
go back to reference Wikström, P. O., & Loeber, R. (2000). Do disadvantaged neighborhoods cause well-adjusted children to become adolescent delinquents? A study of male juvenile serious offending, individual risk and protective factors, and neighborhood context. Criminology, 38, 1109–1142.CrossRef Wikström, P. O., & Loeber, R. (2000). Do disadvantaged neighborhoods cause well-adjusted children to become adolescent delinquents? A study of male juvenile serious offending, individual risk and protective factors, and neighborhood context. Criminology, 38, 1109–1142.CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Developmental Precursors of Moral Disengagement and the Role of Moral Disengagement in the Development of Antisocial Behavior
Auteurs
Luke W. Hyde
Daniel S. Shaw
Kristin L. Moilanen
Publicatiedatum
01-02-2010
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology / Uitgave 2/2010
Print ISSN: 2730-7166
Elektronisch ISSN: 2730-7174
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-009-9358-5

Andere artikelen Uitgave 2/2010

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 2/2010 Naar de uitgave