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17-04-2019 | Uitgave 8/2019

Quality of Life Research 8/2019

Development of a quality of life questionnaire for nursing home residents in mainland China

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 8/2019
Dongjuan Xu, Jie Gao, Liqin Chen, Huanyu Mou, Xiaorong Wang, Jiying Ling, Kefang Wang
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The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11136-019-02180-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Dongjuan Xu and Jie Gao have contributed equally to this work.

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To develop and validate a quality of life (QOL) questionnaire for nursing home (NH) residents in mainland China.


A cross-sectional study including a development sample (n = 176) and validation sample (n = 371) of NH residents aged 60 and older was conducted between 2015 and 2016 in Jinan, Shandong Province, China. Resident interviews, literature reviews, expert panels, and pilot studies were used to identify QOL domains and items pertinent to NH life. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used to develop and validate a QOL questionnaire. Reliability (internal consistency, spilt-half reliability, and test–retest reliability) and validity (construct and criterion validity) were evaluated for the questionnaire.


The self-report Chinese NH QOL questionnaire had 9 domains and 38 items including physical health (4 items), food enjoyment (6 items), security (3 items), environmental comfort (5 items), autonomy (2 items), meaningful activity (3 items), interrelationship (6 items), family relationships (3 items), and mood (6 items). The nine-factor model was confirmed with the following fit indices: χ2/df = 1.872, root mean square error of approximation = 0.049, comparative fit index = 0.913, and Tucker-Lewis index = 0.903. The 38-item NH QOL questionnaire showed satisfactory construct validity, criterion validity, internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89, spilt-half reliability = 0.73, test–retest reliability = 0.76).


The NH QOL questionnaire appears to be a reliable and valid instrument and should be incorporated into a set of quality measures for use with NH residents in mainland China

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