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30-11-2019 | Original Paper | Uitgave 4/2020 Open Access

Journal of Child and Family Studies 4/2020

Development and Validation of the Guilt and Shame Questionnaire for Adolescents of Parents with a Mental Illness (GSQ-APMI)

Tijdschrift:
Journal of Child and Family Studies > Uitgave 4/2020
Auteurs:
Annick Bosch, Monique van de Ven, Karin van Doesum
Belangrijke opmerkingen
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Abstract

Objectives

Children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) often experience negative feelings, such as guilt and shame. These feelings may put them at risk of developing internalizing or externalizing problems. In the Netherlands, preventive peer support groups exist which aim at preventing experiencing negative feelings such as guilt and shame. However, current questionnaires which assess feelings of guilt and shame have limitations and therefore cannot be used to measure these feelings in adolescent COPMI. Moreover, it cannot be measured if these peer support groups succeed in preventing experiencing negative feelings, such as guilt and shame. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the ‘Guilt and Shame Questionnaire—for Adolescents of Parents with a Mental Illness (GSQ-APMI)’, which is specifically designed for adolescent COPMI aged 12–21 years.

Methods

The study consisted of three phases: phase 1, ‘Operationalization and Item Development’; phase 2, ‘Pilot Testing’; and phase 3, ‘Psychometric Properties’. Phase 2 included 79 adolescent COPMI; phase 3 included 47 adolescent COPMI.

Results

Results revealed that the GSQ-APMI is a reliable and valid questionnaire to measure feelings of guilt and shame in adolescent COPMI.

Conclusions

The GSQ-APMI is a short (10 items) and feasible instrument, ready to use in both research and clinical practice to establish feelings of guilt and shame in adolescent COPMI. The questionnaire results in two scale scores: one scale score reflecting feelings of guilt and one scale score reflecting feelings of shame.

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