Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The original version of this article was revised: The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The title was incorrect. The correct title is “Development and Cross-Cultural Validity of a Brief Measure of Separation-Individuation”. The original article has been corrected.
A correction to this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-018-1174-5.
The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-018-1140-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Separation from parents is a key aspect of adolescent development and has been linked to a variety of important mental and behavioral health outcomes. Separation-individuation measures were developed in the United States and have been used in Asian contexts. However, no cross-cultural studies have demonstrated that measures of separation-individuation tap the same domains across Asian and American adolescents. This article describes two studies conducted to develop and initially validate a scale for measuring adolescent separation-individuation. Study 1 (n = 300) developed a Brief Measure of Separation-Individuation (BMSI) using Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Item Response Theory. The result was a 32-item BMSI that provided comparable test information to the original 148-item measure. Study 2 examined the BMSI for measurement invariance and convergent validity across U.S. and Taiwanese samples (ns = 231 and 323). Findings suggest that functional independence, attitudinal independence, and emotional independence may be culturally invariant separation-individuation constructs. However, conflictual independence seems to be more culturally dependent in that its items were only partially scalar invariant and it was only loosely related to the other separation-individuation factors. Findings are consistent with previous research that recommended against using total scores for the PSI (i.e., scoring a single separation-individuation dimension). This study suggests the BMSI holds promise as a brief measure of separation-individuation that can be used in cross-cultural research.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Beyers, W., Goossens, L., Vansant, I., & Moors, E. (2003). A structural model of autonomy in middle and late adolescence: connectedness, separation, detachment, and agency. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32, 351–365. CrossRef
Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Byrne, B. M., Shavelson, R. J., & Muthén, B. (1989). Testing for the equivalence of factor covariance and mean structures: the issue of partial measurement invariance. Psychological Bulletin, 105, 456–466. CrossRef
Chao, R., & Tseng, V. (2002). Parenting of Asians. In M. H. Bornstein (Series Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Social conditions and applied parenting. 2nd ed. (pp. 59–93). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Chen, C. C. (2009). Separation-individuation, perceived parental control and filial piety in the Asian culture (Unpublished master’s thesis). Hualien, Taiwan:National Dong Hwa University.
Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(2), 233–255. CrossRef
Choi, K. H. (2002). Psychological separation-individuation and adjustment to college among Korean American students: the roles of collectivism and individualism. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49, 468–475. CrossRef
Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297–334. CrossRef
de Ayala, R. J. (2009). The theory and practice of item response theory.. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Delhaye, M., Kempenaers, C., Burton, J., Linkowski, P., Stroobants, R., & Goossens, L. (2012). Attachment, parenting, and separation-individuation in adolescence: A comparison of hospitalized adolescents, institutionalized adolescents, and controls. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 173, 119–141. CrossRefPubMed
Downing, H. M., & Nauta, M. M. (2010). Separation-individuation, exploration, and identity diffusion as mediators of the relationship between attachment and career indecision. Journal of Career Development, 36, 207–227. CrossRef
Dundes, L., Cho, E., & Kwak, S. (2009). The duty to succeed: honor versus happiness in college and career choices of East Asian students in the United States. Pastoral Care in Education, 27, 135–156. CrossRef
Dzukaeva, V. (2014). Adaptation of Psychological Separation Inventory (PSI) for Russian sample. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 146, 216–221.
Hair, Jr., J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Haws, W. A., & Mallinckrodt, B. (1998). Separation-individuation from family of origin and marital adjustment of recently married couples. American Journal of Family Therapy, 26, 293–306. CrossRef
He, S., Xin, X., Li, J., Hua, S., & Hu, W. (2014). The relationship between family cohesion and freshmen’s adjustment to college: The mediating effect of separation-individuation. Chinese Journal of Special Education, 5, 87–96.
Hoffman, J. A. (1984). Psychological separation of late adolescents from their parents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31, 170–178. CrossRef
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. CrossRef
Jeon, H. O. (2012). Relationship of psychological separation, depression and antidepressive coping behaviors in university students. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, 13(6), 2655–2663. CrossRef
Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. 4th ed. New York: The Guilford Press.
Koepke, S., & Denissen, J. J. A. (2012). Dynamics of identity development and separation-individuation in parent-child relationships during adolescence and emerging adulthood: A conceptual integration. Developmental Review, 32(1), 67–88. CrossRef
Kroger, J. (1998). Adolescence as a second separation–individuation process: Critical review of an objectrelations approach. In E. E. A. Skoe & A. L. v. d. Lippe (Eds.), Personality development in adolescence: Across-national and life span perspective. (pp. 172–192). London, England: Routledge.
Liu, W. C. (2005). Contents and measurements of “Multi-individuation” process for adolescents in parent child relationship. Formosa Journal of Mental Health, 18, 55–92.
Mahler, M., Pine, F., & Bergman, A. (2000). The psychological birth of the human infant: symbiosis and individuation.. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Mattanah, J. F., Brand, B. L., & Hancock, G. R. (2004). Parental attachment, separation -individuation, and college student adjustment: a structural equation analysis of mediational effects. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51, 213–225. CrossRef
Millsap, R. E. (2011). Statistical approaches to measurement invariance.. New York, NY: Routledge.
R Core Team. (2013). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Rice, K. G. (1992). Separation-individuation and adjustment to college: a longitudinal study. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 39, 203–213. CrossRef
Rice, K. G., Cole, D. A., & Lapsley, D. K. (1990). Separation-individuation, family cohesion, and adjustment to college: measurement validation and test of a theoretical model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 37, 195–202. CrossRef
Rizopoulos, D. (2006). ltm: An R package for latent variable modeling and item response theory analyses. Journal of Statistical Software, 17, 1–25. CrossRef
Samejima, F. (1996). The graded response model. In W. J. van der Linden & R. K. Hambleton (Eds.), Handbook of modern item response theory (pp. 85–101). New York, NY: Springer.
Schwartz, S. J., Côté, J., & Arnett, J. J. (2005). Identity and agency in emerging adulthood: two developmental routes in the individualization process. Youth & Society, 37, 201–229. CrossRef
Sevda, A. (2010). The relation between attachment and personal and social adjustment mediated by separation-individuation. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 4048–4053.
Sivadas, E., Bruvold, N. T., & Nelson, M. R. (2008). A reduced version of the horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism scale: a four-country assessment. Journal of Business Research, 61, 201–210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2007.06.016. CrossRef
Tokar, D. M., Withrow, J. R., Hall, R. J., & Moradi, B. (2003). Psychological separation, attachment security, vocational self-concept crystallization, and career indecision: A structural equation analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 3–19. CrossRef
Triandis, H. C., & Gelfand, M. J. (1998). Converging measurement of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 118–128. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.124. CrossRef
- Development and Cross-Cultural Validity of a Brief Measure of Separation-Individuation
C. C. Chen
G. B. Richardson
M. H. C. Lai
C. L. Dai
D. G. Hays
- Springer US