The identification of factors that affect quality of life (QoL) is crucial to ameliorate the increasing burden of diabetes. This study tested a multi-dimensional model that consisted of factors across three domains (personal, medical, and lifestyle factors) to understand determinants of QoL in adults with type 2 diabetes.
Research design and methods
A total of 1,147 adults with type 2 diabetes completed a self-report survey which assessed demographic factors, personality (activity sub-trait), medical factors (diabetes duration, insulin use, number of comorbidities, and Body Mass Index), lifestyle behaviors (smoking, physical activity, and diet), and two indicators of QoL [i.e., health-related quality of life (HRQL) and life satisfaction (LS)].
The model explained 27.1 and 18.2% of the variance for HRQL and LS, respectively. Age was positively related to HRQL (β = 0.14, P < 0.01). Personality (sub-activity trait) was the strongest, independent variable in both HRQL (β = 0.25, P < 0.01) and LS (β = 0.25, P < 0.01) after controlling for demographic, medical, and lifestyle factors. Physical activity was positively associated (β = 0.14, P < 0.01) with HRQL but not with LS.
Personality may be a useful screening tool to distinguish adults with type 2 diabetes who are at risk for poor QoL.