Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Kind en adolescent 4/2015

01-12-2015 | Lustrum

De dwangstoornis bij kinderen en jongeren, verklaringsmodellen en behandeling: een overzicht van nieuwe ontwikkelingen

Auteurs: Prof. dr. Else de Haan, Dr. Lidewij H. Wolters, Dr. Elske Salemink

Gepubliceerd in: Kind en adolescent | Uitgave 4/2015

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Samenvatting

Inleiding

Hoewel de symptomen van een dwangstoornis duidelijk zijn, is het niet bekend wat het essentiële probleem ervan is. Kennis hierover kan consequenties hebben voor het behandelbeleid.

Methode

Twee psychologische verklaringsmodellen en recent onderzoek naar behandeleffectiviteit worden besproken.

Resultaten

Het cognitieve verklaringsmodel is niet aangetoond juist, maar heeft een invloedrijke vorm van behandeling gegenereerd (cognitieve therapie). Het model dat gedrag (met name herhalen) als het centrale probleem ziet, is experimenteel aangetoond. Op grond van dit model is de belangrijkste behandelstrategie exposure en responspreventie. Uit een recente meta-analyse blijkt dat cognitieve gedragstherapie (CGT) en de combinatie van CGT met medicatie effectieve behandelvormen zijn (grote effect size hebben). Als CGT wordt uitgevoerd door gespecialiseerde behandelaars is er geen verschil in effect tussen CGT en CGT gecombineerd met medicatie. Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) en korte intensieve therapie zijn nieuwe vormen van behandeling.

Conclusie

Onderzoek naar verklaringsmodellen voor de dwangstoornis is van belang voor het verbeteren van de behandeling. CGT is effectief maar zou uitgevoerd moeten worden door gespecialiseerde behandelaars. Dat het combineren van CGT met medicatie het effect van CGT vergroot is niet aangetoond. Ouders betrekken bij de behandeling is essentieel.
Literatuur
go back to reference Aacap, American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Committee on Quality Issues (2012). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents wih obsessive compulsive disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51, 98–113. CrossRef Aacap, American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Committee on Quality Issues (2012). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents wih obsessive compulsive disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51, 98–113. CrossRef
go back to reference Abramowitz, J. S., Whiteside, S. P., & Deacon, B. J. (2005). The effectiveness of treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: A meta-analysis. Behaviour Therapy, 36, 55–63. CrossRef Abramowitz, J. S., Whiteside, S. P., & Deacon, B. J. (2005). The effectiveness of treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: A meta-analysis. Behaviour Therapy, 36, 55–63. CrossRef
go back to reference APA (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Fifth Edition. American Psychiatric Association. APA (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Fifth Edition. American Psychiatric Association.
go back to reference Coles, M. E., Radomsky, A. S., & Horng, B. (2006). Exploring the boundaries of memory distrust from repeated checking: Increasing external validity and examining theresholds. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 995–1006. CrossRefPubMed Coles, M. E., Radomsky, A. S., & Horng, B. (2006). Exploring the boundaries of memory distrust from repeated checking: Increasing external validity and examining theresholds. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 995–1006. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cook, E. H., Wagner, K. D., Marsch, J. S., Biederman, J., Landau, P., Wolkow, R., & Messig, M (2001). Long-term sertraline treatment of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1175–1181. CrossRefPubMed Cook, E. H., Wagner, K. D., Marsch, J. S., Biederman, J., Landau, P., Wolkow, R., & Messig, M (2001). Long-term sertraline treatment of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1175–1181. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cougle, J. R., & Lee, H. J. (2014). Pathological and non-pathological features of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Revisiting basic assumptions of cognitive models Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, 3, 12–20. CrossRef Cougle, J. R., & Lee, H. J. (2014). Pathological and non-pathological features of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Revisiting basic assumptions of cognitive models Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, 3, 12–20. CrossRef
go back to reference Flessner, C. A., Freeman, J. B., Sapyta, J., Garcia, A., Franklin, M. E., March, J. S., & Foa E (2011). Predictors of Parental Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Findings from the Pediatric Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study (POTS) Trial. Journal of the American Acadademy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(7), 716–725. Flessner, C. A., Freeman, J. B., Sapyta, J., Garcia, A., Franklin, M. E., March, J. S., & Foa E (2011). Predictors of Parental Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Findings from the Pediatric Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study (POTS) Trial. Journal of the American Acadademy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(7), 716–725.
go back to reference Franklin, M. E., Sapyta, J., Freeman, J. B., Khanna, M., Compton, S., Almirall, D., Moore, Ph., Choate-Summers, M., Garcia, A., Edson, A. L., Foa, E. B., & March, J. S. (2011). Cognitive Behavior Therapy Augmentationof Pharmacotherapy in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. The Pediatric OCD Treatment Study II (POTS II). Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA, 306, 1224–1232. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed Franklin, M. E., Sapyta, J., Freeman, J. B., Khanna, M., Compton, S., Almirall, D., Moore, Ph., Choate-Summers, M., Garcia, A., Edson, A. L., Foa, E. B., & March, J. S. (2011). Cognitive Behavior Therapy Augmentationof Pharmacotherapy in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. The Pediatric OCD Treatment Study II (POTS II). Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA, 306, 1224–1232. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Freeman, J., Garcia, A., Frank, H., Benito, K., Conelea, C., Walther, M., & Edmunds, J. (2014). Evidence base update for psychosocial treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 43( 1), 7–26. CrossRef Freeman, J., Garcia, A., Frank, H., Benito, K., Conelea, C., Walther, M., & Edmunds, J. (2014). Evidence base update for psychosocial treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 43( 1), 7–26. CrossRef
go back to reference Freeman, J. B., Choate-Summers, M. L., Garcia, A. M., Moore, P. S., Sapyta, J. J., Khanna, M. S., March, J. S., Foa, E. B., & Franklin, M.E. 3 (2009). The Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study II: rationale, design and methods. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 3, 1–15. CrossRef Freeman, J. B., Choate-Summers, M. L., Garcia, A. M., Moore, P. S., Sapyta, J. J., Khanna, M. S., March, J. S., Foa, E. B., & Franklin, M.E. 3 (2009). The Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study II: rationale, design and methods. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 3, 1–15. CrossRef
go back to reference Garcia, A. M., Sapyta, J. J., Moore, Ph. S., Freeman, J. B., Franklin, M. E., March, J. S., & Foa, E. B. (2010). Predictors and moderators of treatment outcome in the Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Treatment Study (POTS I). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 1024–1033 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed Garcia, A. M., Sapyta, J. J., Moore, Ph. S., Freeman, J. B., Franklin, M. E., March, J. S., & Foa, E. B. (2010). Predictors and moderators of treatment outcome in the Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Treatment Study (POTS I). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 1024–1033 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Geller, D. A., Biederman, J., Steward, S. E., Mullin, B., Martin, A., Spencer, T., & Faraone, S. V. (2003). Which SSRI? A meta-analysis of pharmacotherapy trials in pediatric obsessieve-compulsive disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160 , 1919–1928. CrossRefPubMed Geller, D. A., Biederman, J., Steward, S. E., Mullin, B., Martin, A., Spencer, T., & Faraone, S. V. (2003). Which SSRI? A meta-analysis of pharmacotherapy trials in pediatric obsessieve-compulsive disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160 , 1919–1928. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gillan, C. M., & Sahakian, B. J. (2015). Which is the driver, the obsessions or the compulsions, in OCD? Neuropsychopharmacology Reviews, 40, 247–248. CrossRefPubMed Gillan, C. M., & Sahakian, B. J. (2015). Which is the driver, the obsessions or the compulsions, in OCD? Neuropsychopharmacology Reviews, 40, 247–248. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hollander E, & Zohar J. (2004). Beyond refractory obsessions and anxiety states: toward remission. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 4, 3–5. Hollander E, & Zohar J. (2004). Beyond refractory obsessions and anxiety states: toward remission. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 4, 3–5.
go back to reference Hollander, E., Kim, S., Braun, A., Simeon, D., & Zohar, J. (2009). Cross-cutting issues and future directions for the OCD spectrum. Psychiatry Research, 170, 3–6. CrossRefPubMed Hollander, E., Kim, S., Braun, A., Simeon, D., & Zohar, J. (2009). Cross-cutting issues and future directions for the OCD spectrum. Psychiatry Research, 170, 3–6. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lau, J. Y. (2013). Cognitive bias modification of interpretations: A viable treatment for child and adolescent anxiety?. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51, 614–622. CrossRefPubMed Lau, J. Y. (2013). Cognitive bias modification of interpretations: A viable treatment for child and adolescent anxiety?. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51, 614–622. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Leckman, J. F., Walker, D. E., Goodman, W. K., Pauls, D. L., & Cohen, D. J. (1994). ‘Just right’ perceptions associated with compulsive behavior in Tourette’s syndrom. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 675–680. CrossRefPubMed Leckman, J. F., Walker, D. E., Goodman, W. K., Pauls, D. L., & Cohen, D. J. (1994). ‘Just right’ perceptions associated with compulsive behavior in Tourette’s syndrom. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 675–680. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Menne-Lothmann, C., Viechtbauer, W., Höhn, P., Kasanova, Z., Haller, S. P., Drukker, M., Os, J. van, Wichers, M. & Lau, J. Y. (2014). How to boost positive interpretations? A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of cognitive bias modification for interpretation. PloS One, 9(6), e100925. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed Menne-Lothmann, C., Viechtbauer, W., Höhn, P., Kasanova, Z., Haller, S. P., Drukker, M., Os, J. van, Wichers, M. & Lau, J. Y. (2014). How to boost positive interpretations? A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of cognitive bias modification for interpretation. PloS One, 9(6), e100925. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Merlo, L. J., Lehmkuhl, H. D., Geffken, G. R., & Storch, E. A. (2009). Decreased family accommodation associated with improved therapy outcome in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 355–360. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed Merlo, L. J., Lehmkuhl, H. D., Geffken, G. R., & Storch, E. A. (2009). Decreased family accommodation associated with improved therapy outcome in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 355–360. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Pediatric OCD Treatment Study Team [POTS (2004). Cognitive-behavior therapy, sertraline, and their combination with children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: the Pediatric OCD Treatment Study (POTS) randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 292, 1969–1976. CrossRef Pediatric OCD Treatment Study Team [POTS (2004). Cognitive-behavior therapy, sertraline, and their combination with children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: the Pediatric OCD Treatment Study (POTS) randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 292, 1969–1976. CrossRef
go back to reference Peris, T. S. & Piacentini, J. (2013). Optimizing treatment for complex cases of childhood obsessive compulsive A preliminary trial. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 42, 1–8. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed Peris, T. S. & Piacentini, J. (2013). Optimizing treatment for complex cases of childhood obsessive compulsive A preliminary trial. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 42, 1–8. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Peris, T. S., Sugar, C. A., Bergman, R. L., Chang, S., Langley, A., & Piacentini, J. (2012). Family factors predict treatment outcome for pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80, 255–263. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed Peris, T. S., Sugar, C. A., Bergman, R. L., Chang, S., Langley, A., & Piacentini, J. (2012). Family factors predict treatment outcome for pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80, 255–263. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Radomsky, A. S., Dugas, M. J., Alcolado, G. M., & Lavoie, S. L. (2014). When more is less: Doubt, repetition, memory, metamemory, and compulsive checking in OCD. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 59, 30–39. CrossRefPubMed Radomsky, A. S., Dugas, M. J., Alcolado, G. M., & Lavoie, S. L. (2014). When more is less: Doubt, repetition, memory, metamemory, and compulsive checking in OCD. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 59, 30–39. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Salemink, E., Wolters, L. & Haan, E de (2015). Augmentation of treatment of ususla with online cognitive bias modification of interpretationtraining in adolescents with obsessive compulsive disorder. A pilotstudy. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2015.02.003 Salemink, E., Wolters, L. & Haan, E de (2015). Augmentation of treatment of ususla with online cognitive bias modification of interpretationtraining in adolescents with obsessive compulsive disorder. A pilotstudy. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2015.02.003
go back to reference Sánchez-Meca, J., Rosa-Alcázar, A. I., Iniesta-Sepúlveda, M., & Rosa-Alcázar, A. (2014). Differential efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatments for pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder: A meta-analysis. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28, 31–44. CrossRefPubMed Sánchez-Meca, J., Rosa-Alcázar, A. I., Iniesta-Sepúlveda, M., & Rosa-Alcázar, A. (2014). Differential efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatments for pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder: A meta-analysis. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28, 31–44. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Salkoviskis, P. M. (1985). Obsessional-compulsive problems. A cognitive-behavioral analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 347–372. Salkoviskis, P. M. (1985). Obsessional-compulsive problems. A cognitive-behavioral analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 347–372.
go back to reference Skarphedinsson, G., Weidle, B., Thomsen, P. H., Dahl, K., Torp, N. C., Nissen, J. B., Melin, K. H., Hybel, K., Valderhaug, R., Wentzel-Larsen, T., Compton, S. N., & Ivarsson, T. (2014). Continued cognitive-behavior therapy versus sertraline for children and adolescents with obsessive–compulsive disorder that were non-responders to cognitive-behavior therapy:a randomized controlled trial. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, PMID: 25239489 Skarphedinsson, G., Weidle, B., Thomsen, P. H., Dahl, K., Torp, N. C., Nissen, J. B., Melin, K. H., Hybel, K., Valderhaug, R., Wentzel-Larsen, T., Compton, S. N., & Ivarsson, T. (2014). Continued cognitive-behavior therapy versus sertraline for children and adolescents with obsessive–compulsive disorder that were non-responders to cognitive-behavior therapy:a randomized controlled trial. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, PMID: 25239489
go back to reference Storch, E. A., Geffken, G. R., Merlo, L. J., Jacob, M. L., Murphy, T. K., Goodman, W. K., Larson, M. J., Fernandez, M., & Grabill, K. (2007a). Family accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive – Compulsive Disorder, Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37, 207–216. CrossRef Storch, E. A., Geffken, G. R., Merlo, L. J., Jacob, M. L., Murphy, T. K., Goodman, W. K., Larson, M. J., Fernandez, M., & Grabill, K. (2007a). Family accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive – Compulsive Disorder, Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37, 207–216. CrossRef
go back to reference Storch, E. A., Geffken, G. R., Merlo, L. J., Mann, G., Duke, D., Munson, M., Adkins, J., Grabill, K.M., Murphy, T. K., & Goodman, W.K. (2007b). Family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder: Comparison of intensive and weekly approaches. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 469–478. CrossRefPubMed Storch, E. A., Geffken, G. R., Merlo, L. J., Mann, G., Duke, D., Munson, M., Adkins, J., Grabill, K.M., Murphy, T. K., & Goodman, W.K. (2007b). Family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder: Comparison of intensive and weekly approaches. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 469–478. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Storch, E. A., Abramowitz, J., & Goodman, W. K (2008a). Where does obsessive-compulsive disorder belong in DSM-V? Depression and Anxiety, 25, 336–347. CrossRefPubMed Storch, E. A., Abramowitz, J., & Goodman, W. K (2008a). Where does obsessive-compulsive disorder belong in DSM-V? Depression and Anxiety, 25, 336–347. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Storch, E. A., Merlo, L. J., Lehmkuhl, H., Geffken, G. R., Jacob, M., Ricketts, E., Murphy, T. K., & Goodman, W. K. (2008b). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder: A non-randomized comparison of intensive and weekly approaches. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 1146–1158. CrossRefPubMed Storch, E. A., Merlo, L. J., Lehmkuhl, H., Geffken, G. R., Jacob, M., Ricketts, E., Murphy, T. K., & Goodman, W. K. (2008b). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder: A non-randomized comparison of intensive and weekly approaches. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 1146–1158. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Storch, E. A., Bussing, R., Small, B. J., Geffken, G. R., McNamara, J. P., Rahman, O., Lewin, A. B., Garvan, C. S., Goodman, W. K., & Murphy, T. K. (2013). Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Alone or Combined with Sertraline in the Treatment of Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51, 823–829. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed Storch, E. A., Bussing, R., Small, B. J., Geffken, G. R., McNamara, J. P., Rahman, O., Lewin, A. B., Garvan, C. S., Goodman, W. K., & Murphy, T. K. (2013). Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Alone or Combined with Sertraline in the Treatment of Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51, 823–829. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Toffolo, M. B. J., Hout, M. A. van den, Hooge, I. T. C., Engelhard, I. M. & Cath, D. C. (2013). Mild uncertainty promotes checking behavior in Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Clinical Psychological Science, 1, 103–109. CrossRef Toffolo, M. B. J., Hout, M. A. van den, Hooge, I. T. C., Engelhard, I. M. & Cath, D. C. (2013). Mild uncertainty promotes checking behavior in Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Clinical Psychological Science, 1, 103–109. CrossRef
go back to reference Van den Hout, M. & Kindt, M. (2003). Waarom herhaald controleren twijfel aan het geheugen niet wegneemt. Directieve Therapie, 25, 74–81. CrossRef Van den Hout, M. & Kindt, M. (2003). Waarom herhaald controleren twijfel aan het geheugen niet wegneemt. Directieve Therapie, 25, 74–81. CrossRef
go back to reference Watson, H. J. & Rees, C. S. (2008). Meta-analysis of randomized, controlled treatment trials for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49( 5), 489–498. CrossRefPubMed Watson, H. J. & Rees, C. S. (2008). Meta-analysis of randomized, controlled treatment trials for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49( 5), 489–498. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Whiteside, S.P., & Brown Jacobsen, A. (2010). An uncontrolled examination of a 5-day intensive treatment for Pediatric OCD. Behavior Therapy 41, 414–422. CrossRefPubMed Whiteside, S.P., & Brown Jacobsen, A. (2010). An uncontrolled examination of a 5-day intensive treatment for Pediatric OCD. Behavior Therapy 41, 414–422. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Wolters, L.H. (2013.). Towards improving treatment for childhood OCD: analyzing mediating mechanisms & non-response. Academisch proefschrift. Wolters, L.H. (2013.). Towards improving treatment for childhood OCD: analyzing mediating mechanisms & non-response. Academisch proefschrift.
go back to reference Wolters, L.H., Haan, E. de, Hogendoorn, S.M., Boer, F., & Prins, P.J.M. (in voorbereiding). Severe pediatric OCD and co-morbid autistic symptoms: Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral monotherapy. Wolters, L.H., Haan, E. de, Hogendoorn, S.M., Boer, F., & Prins, P.J.M. (in voorbereiding). Severe pediatric OCD and co-morbid autistic symptoms: Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral monotherapy.
go back to reference Wu, M. S., Lewin, A. B., Murphy, T. M., Geffken, G. R., & Storch, E. A. (2014) Phenomenological considerations of family accommodation: Related clinical characteristics and family factors in pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder. Journal of Obsessive Compulsive and Related disorders, 3, 228–235. CrossRef Wu, M. S., Lewin, A. B., Murphy, T. M., Geffken, G. R., & Storch, E. A. (2014) Phenomenological considerations of family accommodation: Related clinical characteristics and family factors in pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder. Journal of Obsessive Compulsive and Related disorders, 3, 228–235. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
De dwangstoornis bij kinderen en jongeren, verklaringsmodellen en behandeling: een overzicht van nieuwe ontwikkelingen
Auteurs
Prof. dr. Else de Haan
Dr. Lidewij H. Wolters
Dr. Elske Salemink
Publicatiedatum
01-12-2015
Uitgeverij
Bohn Stafleu van Loghum
Gepubliceerd in
Kind en adolescent / Uitgave 4/2015
Print ISSN: 0167-2436
Elektronisch ISSN: 1876-5998
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12453-015-0100-5