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The present study examined past-month pain severity in relation to e-cigarette dependence, perceived barriers for quitting e-cigarettes, and beliefs about risks associated with using e-cigarettes. Participants were 322 e-cigarette users from the United States (60.2% female, Mage= 36.78 years, SD = 10.62). Results indicated that pain severity was significantly and positively related to e-cigarette dependence, perceived risks of e-cigarette use, and perceived barriers to quitting e-cigarettes. The observed effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by sex, age, education, income, dual cigarette use, frequency of e-cigarette use, and perceived health status. The present study provides novel empirical evidence that pain experience is related to a moderate, yet clinically-meaningful, proportion of the variance in e-cigarette dependence, perceived barriers for quitting e-cigarettes, and beliefs about e-cigarette risks. These findings suggest there is merit to exploring the role of pan experience in the onset and maintenance of e-cigarette use.
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- Current pain severity and electronic cigarettes: an initial empirical investigation
Michael J. Zvolensky
Nubia A. Mayorga
Andrew H. Rogers
Michael F. Orr
Joseph W. Ditre
- Springer US