Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 4/2008

01-05-2008

Current and Past Maternal Depression, Maternal Interaction Behaviors, and Children’s Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms

Auteurs: Cynthia J. Ewell Foster, Judy Garber, Joseph A. Durlak

Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology | Uitgave 4/2008

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Relations among past maternal depressive disorder, current depressive symptoms, current maternal interaction behaviors, and children’s adjustment were examined in a sample of 204 women and their young adolescent offspring (mean age = 11.86, SD = 0.55). Mothers either had (n = 157) or had not (n = 57) experienced at least one depressive disorder during the child’s life. Mothers and children participated in a problem-solving task, video-taped for later coding. Mothers with current depressive symptoms and those with histories of chronic/severe depressive disorders displayed fewer positive behaviors toward their children; mothers with current depressive symptoms also showed more negative behaviors with their children. The relation between mothers’ depression history and their behavior during the interaction with their child was partially mediated by mothers’ current mood state. Moreover, high levels of maternal negativity and low levels of positivity during the problem-solving task were related to children’s externalizing problems. Maternal positivity partially mediated the relation between maternal depression and children’s externalizing symptoms. These findings highlight the importance of providing parenting interventions for depressed mothers.
Voetnoten
1
Students in full-time special education classes were excluded due to concerns about their being able to complete the battery of questionnaires, which required at least a fifth grade reading level.
 
2
Demographic variables investigated as potential control variables included SES, race, mother’s age, and mother’s marital status. Because inclusion of these variables did not alter the findings, and these variables were not hypothesized to affect the relation between maternal depression and mothers’ interaction behaviors, they were trimmed from the models.
 
3
Due to concerns about depressive bias in maternal reporting, these analyses were repeated using the Youth Self-Report version of the CBCL. Results were identical using the CBCL and YSR with the exception of the relation between maternal negativity and externalizing (YSR), which was a trend. We used the CBCL because parents’ report of externalizing behaviors tends to be more accurate than children’s report, and given the age of the sample, we expected more externalizing problems than internalizing problems.
 
4
Child gender was significantly correlated with CBCL internalizing and externalizing scores, so gender was initially used as a control variable. Because its inclusion did not alter the results and because gender differences were not hypothesized, gender was trimmed from the final model.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the youth-self-report and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry. Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the youth-self-report and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
go back to reference Ackerman, R., & DeRubeis, R. J. (1991). Is depressive realism real? Clinical Psychology Review, 11, 565–584. CrossRef Ackerman, R., & DeRubeis, R. J. (1991). Is depressive realism real? Clinical Psychology Review, 11, 565–584. CrossRef
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ((4th.) ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ((4th.) ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.
go back to reference Anderson, K. E., Lytton, H., & Romney, D. M. (1986). Mothers’ interactions with normal and conduct disordered-boys: Who affects whom? Developmental Psychology, 22, 604–609. CrossRef Anderson, K. E., Lytton, H., & Romney, D. M. (1986). Mothers’ interactions with normal and conduct disordered-boys: Who affects whom? Developmental Psychology, 22, 604–609. CrossRef
go back to reference Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (2001). The epidemiology of depression in children and adolescents. In I. M. Goodyer (Ed.), Cambridge child and adolescent psychiatry. The depressed child and adolescent (2nd ed., pp. 143–178). Cambridge University Press. Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (2001). The epidemiology of depression in children and adolescents. In I. M. Goodyer (Ed.), Cambridge child and adolescent psychiatry. The depressed child and adolescent (2nd ed., pp. 143–178). Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Barkley, R. A. (1997). Defiant children. New York: Guilford. Barkley, R. A. (1997). Defiant children. New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 1173–1182. CrossRef Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 1173–1182. CrossRef
go back to reference Beck, A. T., Ward, C. F., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erlbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 53–63. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. F., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erlbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 53–63.
go back to reference Brennan, P., Hammen, C., Andersen, M. J., Bor, W., Najman, J. M., & Williams, G. M. (2000). Chronicity, severity, and timing of maternal depressive symptoms: Relationships with child outcomes at age 5. Developmental Psychology, 36, 759–766. PubMedCrossRef Brennan, P., Hammen, C., Andersen, M. J., Bor, W., Najman, J. M., & Williams, G. M. (2000). Chronicity, severity, and timing of maternal depressive symptoms: Relationships with child outcomes at age 5. Developmental Psychology, 36, 759–766. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Brennan, P. A., LeBrocque, R., & Hammen, C. (2003). Maternal depression, parent–child relationships, and resilient outcomes in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1469–1477. PubMedCrossRef Brennan, P. A., LeBrocque, R., & Hammen, C. (2003). Maternal depression, parent–child relationships, and resilient outcomes in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1469–1477. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bumberry, W., Oliver, J. M., & McClure, J. N. (1978). Validation of the Beck depression Inventory in a university population using psychiatric estimate as the criterion. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 150–155. CrossRef Bumberry, W., Oliver, J. M., & McClure, J. N. (1978). Validation of the Beck depression Inventory in a university population using psychiatric estimate as the criterion. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 150–155. CrossRef
go back to reference Campbell, S. B., Cohn, J. F., & Meyers, T. (1995). Depression in first-time mothers: Mother–infant interaction and depression chronicity. Developmental Psychology, 31, 349–357. CrossRef Campbell, S. B., Cohn, J. F., & Meyers, T. (1995). Depression in first-time mothers: Mother–infant interaction and depression chronicity. Developmental Psychology, 31, 349–357. CrossRef
go back to reference Chronis, A. M., Lahey, B. B., Pelham, W. E., Williams, S. H., Baumann, B., Kipp, H., et al. (2007). Maternal depression and early positive parenting predict future conduct problems in young children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Developmental Psychology, 43, 70–82. PubMedCrossRef Chronis, A. M., Lahey, B. B., Pelham, W. E., Williams, S. H., Baumann, B., Kipp, H., et al. (2007). Maternal depression and early positive parenting predict future conduct problems in young children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Developmental Psychology, 43, 70–82. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cohen, J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 10, 37–46. CrossRef Cohen, J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 10, 37–46. CrossRef
go back to reference Cole, D. A., Warren, D. E., Dallaire, D. H., Lagrange, B., Travis, R., & Ciesla, J. (2007). Early predictors of helpless thoughts and behaviors in children: Developmental precursors to depressive cognitions. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 12, 295–305. PubMedCrossRef Cole, D. A., Warren, D. E., Dallaire, D. H., Lagrange, B., Travis, R., & Ciesla, J. (2007). Early predictors of helpless thoughts and behaviors in children: Developmental precursors to depressive cognitions. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 12, 295–305. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group (1992). A developmental and clinical model for the prevention of conduct disorder: The FAST Track Program. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 509–527. CrossRef Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group (1992). A developmental and clinical model for the prevention of conduct disorder: The FAST Track Program. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 509–527. CrossRef
go back to reference Cox, A. D., Pickering, C., Pound, A., & Mills, M. (1987). The impact of maternal depression in young children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 28, 917–928. PubMedCrossRef Cox, A. D., Pickering, C., Pound, A., & Mills, M. (1987). The impact of maternal depression in young children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 28, 917–928. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Dallaire, D. H., Pineda, A. Q., Cole, D. A., Ciesla, J. A., Jacquez, F., LaGrange, B., et al. (2006). Relation of positive and negative parenting to children’s depressive symptoms. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 313–322. PubMedCrossRef Dallaire, D. H., Pineda, A. Q., Cole, D. A., Ciesla, J. A., Jacquez, F., LaGrange, B., et al. (2006). Relation of positive and negative parenting to children’s depressive symptoms. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 313–322. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Donenberg, G. R., & Weisz, J. R. (1997). Experimental task and speaker effects on parent child interactions of aggressive and depressed/anxious children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25, 367–387. PubMedCrossRef Donenberg, G. R., & Weisz, J. R. (1997). Experimental task and speaker effects on parent child interactions of aggressive and depressed/anxious children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25, 367–387. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Eyberg, S. M., & Boggs, S. R. (1989). Parent training for oppositional-defiant pre-schoolers. In C. E. Schaeffer, & J. M. Briesmeister (Eds.) (pp. 105–132). New York: Wiley. Eyberg, S. M., & Boggs, S. R. (1989). Parent training for oppositional-defiant pre-schoolers. In C. E. Schaeffer, & J. M. Briesmeister (Eds.) (pp. 105–132). New York: Wiley.
go back to reference Field, T. (1984). Early interactions between infants and their post-partum depressed mothers. Infant Behavior and Development, 7, 527–532. CrossRef Field, T. (1984). Early interactions between infants and their post-partum depressed mothers. Infant Behavior and Development, 7, 527–532. CrossRef
go back to reference Garber, J., Robinson, N. S., & Valentiner, D. (1997). The relation between parenting and adolescent depression: Self-worth as a mediator. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12, 12–33. CrossRef Garber, J., Robinson, N. S., & Valentiner, D. (1997). The relation between parenting and adolescent depression: Self-worth as a mediator. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12, 12–33. CrossRef
go back to reference Ge, X., Best, K. M., Conger, R. D., & Simons, R. L. (1996). Parenting behaviors and the occurrence and co-occurrence of adolescent depressive symptoms and conduct problems. Developmental Psychology, 32, 717–731. CrossRef Ge, X., Best, K. M., Conger, R. D., & Simons, R. L. (1996). Parenting behaviors and the occurrence and co-occurrence of adolescent depressive symptoms and conduct problems. Developmental Psychology, 32, 717–731. CrossRef
go back to reference Goldsmith, D. F., & Rogoff, B. (1995). Sensitivity and teaching by dysphoric and nondysphoric women in structured and nonstructured situations. Developmental Psychology, 31, 388–394. CrossRef Goldsmith, D. F., & Rogoff, B. (1995). Sensitivity and teaching by dysphoric and nondysphoric women in structured and nonstructured situations. Developmental Psychology, 31, 388–394. CrossRef
go back to reference Goldsmith, D. F., & Rogoff, B. (1997). Mothers’ and toddlers’ coordinated joint focus of attention: Variations with maternal dysphoric symptoms. Developmental Psychology, 33, 113–119. PubMedCrossRef Goldsmith, D. F., & Rogoff, B. (1997). Mothers’ and toddlers’ coordinated joint focus of attention: Variations with maternal dysphoric symptoms. Developmental Psychology, 33, 113–119. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Goodman, S. H., & Gotlib, I. H. (1999). Risk for psychopathology in the children of depressed mothers: A developmental model for understanding mechanisms of transmission. Psychological Review, 106, 458–490. PubMedCrossRef Goodman, S. H., & Gotlib, I. H. (1999). Risk for psychopathology in the children of depressed mothers: A developmental model for understanding mechanisms of transmission. Psychological Review, 106, 458–490. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Goodman, S. H., & Gotlib, I. H. (Eds.), (2002). Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment. Washington, DC: APA. Goodman, S. H., & Gotlib, I. H. (Eds.), (2002). Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment. Washington, DC: APA.
go back to reference Gordon, D., Burge, D., Hammen, C., & Adrian, C. (1989). Observations of interactions of depressed women with their children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 50–55. PubMed Gordon, D., Burge, D., Hammen, C., & Adrian, C. (1989). Observations of interactions of depressed women with their children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 50–55. PubMed
go back to reference Hamilton, E. B., Jones, M., & Hammen, C. (1993). Maternal interaction style in affective disordered, physically ill, and normal women. Family Process, 32, 329–340. PubMedCrossRef Hamilton, E. B., Jones, M., & Hammen, C. (1993). Maternal interaction style in affective disordered, physically ill, and normal women. Family Process, 32, 329–340. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hammen, C. (1992). The family-environmental context of depression: A perspective on children’s risk. In D. Cicchetti, & S. L. Toth (Eds.) Rochester symposium on developmental psychopathology, Vol. IV. Developmental perspectives on depression (pp. 251–281). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. Hammen, C. (1992). The family-environmental context of depression: A perspective on children’s risk. In D. Cicchetti, & S. L. Toth (Eds.) Rochester symposium on developmental psychopathology, Vol. IV. Developmental perspectives on depression (pp. 251–281). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
go back to reference Hammen, C., Gordon, G., Burge, D., Adrian, C., Jaenicke, C., & Hiroto, G. (1987). Maternal affective disorders, illness, and stress: Risk for children’s psychopathology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 736–741. PubMed Hammen, C., Gordon, G., Burge, D., Adrian, C., Jaenicke, C., & Hiroto, G. (1987). Maternal affective disorders, illness, and stress: Risk for children’s psychopathology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 736–741. PubMed
go back to reference Heller, T. L., & Baker, B. L. (2000). Maternal negativity in children’s externalizing behavior. Early Education and Development, 11, 483–498. CrossRef Heller, T. L., & Baker, B. L. (2000). Maternal negativity in children’s externalizing behavior. Early Education and Development, 11, 483–498. CrossRef
go back to reference Hetherington, E. M., & Clingempeel, W. G. (1992). Coping with marital transitions. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child development, 57(2–3, Serial No. 277), 1–242. Hetherington, E. M., & Clingempeel, W. G. (1992). Coping with marital transitions. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child development, 57(2–3, Serial No. 277), 1–242.
go back to reference Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four factor index of social status. Yale University. Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four factor index of social status. Yale University.
go back to reference Holmbeck, G. N. (2002). Post-hoc probing of significant moderational and mediational effects in studies of pediatric populations. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 27, 87–96. PubMedCrossRef Holmbeck, G. N. (2002). Post-hoc probing of significant moderational and mediational effects in studies of pediatric populations. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 27, 87–96. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Holmbeck, G. N., Belvedere, M., Gorey-Ferguson, L., & Schneider, J. (1995). Family Macro-Coding Manual. Holmbeck, G. N., Belvedere, M., Gorey-Ferguson, L., & Schneider, J. (1995). Family Macro-Coding Manual.
go back to reference Horowitz, J. L., & Garber, J. (2003). Relation of intelligence and religiosity to depressive disorders in offspring of depressed and nondepressed mothers. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 578–586. PubMedCrossRef Horowitz, J. L., & Garber, J. (2003). Relation of intelligence and religiosity to depressive disorders in offspring of depressed and nondepressed mothers. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 578–586. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Jacob, T., & Johnson, S. L. (1997). Parent child interaction among depressed fathers and mothers: impact on child functioning. Journal of Family Psychology, 11, 391–409. CrossRef Jacob, T., & Johnson, S. L. (1997). Parent child interaction among depressed fathers and mothers: impact on child functioning. Journal of Family Psychology, 11, 391–409. CrossRef
go back to reference Keller, M., Beardslee, W., Dorer, D., Lavori, P., Samuelson, H., & Klerman, G. (1986). Impact of severity and chronicity of parental affective illness on adaptive functioning and psychopathology in children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 930–937. PubMed Keller, M., Beardslee, W., Dorer, D., Lavori, P., Samuelson, H., & Klerman, G. (1986). Impact of severity and chronicity of parental affective illness on adaptive functioning and psychopathology in children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 930–937. PubMed
go back to reference Kim-Cohen, J., Moffit, T. E., Taylor, A., Pawlby, S. J., & Caspi, A. (2005). Maternal depression and children’s antisocial behavior: Nature and nurture effects. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 173–181. PubMedCrossRef Kim-Cohen, J., Moffit, T. E., Taylor, A., Pawlby, S. J., & Caspi, A. (2005). Maternal depression and children’s antisocial behavior: Nature and nurture effects. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 173–181. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lovejoy, M. C., Graczyk, P. A., O’Hare, E., & Neuman, G. (2000). Maternal depression and parenting: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 561–592. PubMedCrossRef Lovejoy, M. C., Graczyk, P. A., O’Hare, E., & Neuman, G. (2000). Maternal depression and parenting: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 561–592. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference MacKinnon, D. P., & Dwyer, J. H. (1993). Estimating mediated effects in prevention studies. Evaluation Review, 17, 141–158. CrossRef MacKinnon, D. P., & Dwyer, J. H. (1993). Estimating mediated effects in prevention studies. Evaluation Review, 17, 141–158. CrossRef
go back to reference Murray, L., Woolgar, M., Martins, C., Christaki, A., Hipwell, A., & Cooper, P. (2006). Conversations around homework: Links to parental mental health, family characteristics and child psychological functioning. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 24, 125–149. CrossRef Murray, L., Woolgar, M., Martins, C., Christaki, A., Hipwell, A., & Cooper, P. (2006). Conversations around homework: Links to parental mental health, family characteristics and child psychological functioning. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 24, 125–149. CrossRef
go back to reference Pettit, J. W., & Joiner, T. E. (2006). Chronic depression: Interpersonal sources, therapeutic solutions. Washington, DC: APA. Pettit, J. W., & Joiner, T. E. (2006). Chronic depression: Interpersonal sources, therapeutic solutions. Washington, DC: APA.
go back to reference Richters, J. E. (1992). Depressed mothers as informants about their children: A critical review of the evidence for distortion. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 485–499. PubMedCrossRef Richters, J. E. (1992). Depressed mothers as informants about their children: A critical review of the evidence for distortion. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 485–499. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., & Barocas, R. (1983). Impact of parental psychopathoplogy: Diagnosis, severity, or social status effects. Infant Mental Health Journal, 4, 236–249. CrossRef Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., & Barocas, R. (1983). Impact of parental psychopathoplogy: Diagnosis, severity, or social status effects. Infant Mental Health Journal, 4, 236–249. CrossRef
go back to reference Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., & Zax, M. (1982). Early development of children at risk for emotional disorder. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Vol 47(7) . Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., & Zax, M. (1982). Early development of children at risk for emotional disorder. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Vol 47(7) .
go back to reference Sobel, M. E. (1988). Direct and indirect effect in linear structural equation models. In J. S. Long (Ed.) Common problems/proper solutions: Avoiding error in quantitative research (pp. 46–64). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Sobel, M. E. (1988). Direct and indirect effect in linear structural equation models. In J. S. Long (Ed.) Common problems/proper solutions: Avoiding error in quantitative research (pp. 46–64). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
go back to reference Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B. W., Gibbon, M., & First, M. B. (1990). The structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R (SCID) I: History, rationale, and description. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 624–628. Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B. W., Gibbon, M., & First, M. B. (1990). The structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R (SCID) I: History, rationale, and description. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 624–628.
go back to reference Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York: Bruner/Mazel. Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York: Bruner/Mazel.
go back to reference Thompson, B. (2004). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis: Understanding concepts and applications. Washington, DC: APA. Thompson, B. (2004). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis: Understanding concepts and applications. Washington, DC: APA.
go back to reference Weinberg, M. K., & Tronick, E. (1998). The impact of maternal psychiatric illness on infant development. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59, 53–61. PubMed Weinberg, M. K., & Tronick, E. (1998). The impact of maternal psychiatric illness on infant development. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59, 53–61. PubMed
go back to reference Weissman, M., Pilowsky, D. J., Wickramaratne, P. J., Talati, A., Wisniewski, S. R., Fava, M., et al. (2006). Remissions in maternal depression and child psychopathology: A STAR*D-Child report. Journal of the American Medical Association, 295, 1389–1398. PubMedCrossRef Weissman, M., Pilowsky, D. J., Wickramaratne, P. J., Talati, A., Wisniewski, S. R., Fava, M., et al. (2006). Remissions in maternal depression and child psychopathology: A STAR*D-Child report. Journal of the American Medical Association, 295, 1389–1398. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wickramaratne, P. J., & Weissman, M. M. (1998). Onset of psychopathology in offspring by developmental phase and parental depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 933–942. PubMedCrossRef Wickramaratne, P. J., & Weissman, M. M. (1998). Onset of psychopathology in offspring by developmental phase and parental depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 933–942. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Prehistory of written speech. Social Science, 17, 1–17. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Prehistory of written speech. Social Science, 17, 1–17.
Metagegevens
Titel
Current and Past Maternal Depression, Maternal Interaction Behaviors, and Children’s Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms
Auteurs
Cynthia J. Ewell Foster
Judy Garber
Joseph A. Durlak
Publicatiedatum
01-05-2008
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology / Uitgave 4/2008
Print ISSN: 2730-7166
Elektronisch ISSN: 2730-7174
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-007-9197-1