Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Various aspects of parental work schedules affect the opportunities and constraints that parents encounter when arranging care for their children. This study examined the extent to which the combination of couples’ work schedules was associated with their use of different types of child care, focusing on parental, formal, and informal child care. We considered multiple dimensions of couples’ work schedules, namely, the timing of work, schedule flexibility, and home-based telework. Data from a recent Dutch survey were used, including information about 1599 dual-earner couples with children aged 0–6 years. The results indicated that paid work during nonstandard hours increased the amount of parental child care that was provided by one parent while the other parent was working, whereas work during evenings, nights, and weekends decreased the likelihood of using both formal and informal child care. Results further revealed gender differences for nonstandard hours and schedule flexibility. We found stronger effects of mothers’ work schedules, indicating that a gender-neutral approach to parental work is not justified. These results indicate that the timing of parental work is important to consider when examining not only parental child care but also formal and informal child-care use. We provide recommendations for future research, specifically regarding the possible consequences for parental well-being.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Alles over onregelmatig werk [Everything on irregular work]. (2015). Menzis intermediar. Retrieved from http://www.menzis.nl.
Anderson, S. E., Coffey, B. S., & Byerly, R. T. (2002). Formal organizational initiatives and informal workplace practices: Links to work-family conflict and job-related outcomes. Journal of Management,28, 787–810.
Bakker, W., & Karsten, L. (2013). Balancing paid work, care and leisure in post-separation households: A comparison of single parents with co-parents. Acta Sociologica,56, 173–187. CrossRef
Barnes, M., Bryson, C., & Smith, R. (2006). Working atypical hours: What happens to family life. London: National Centre for Social Research.
Bielby, D. D. (1992). Commitment to work and family. Annual Review of Sociology,18, 281–302. CrossRef
Brown-Lyons, M., Robertson, A., & Layzer, J. (2001). Kith and kin—Informal child care: Highlights from recent research. New York: National Center for Children in Poverty.
Byron, K. (2005). A meta-analytic review of work—Family conflict and its antecedents. Journal of Vocational Behavior,67, 169–198. CrossRef
Carriero, R., Ghysels, J., & Van Klaveren, C. (2009). Do parents coordinate their work schedules? A comparison of Dutch, Flemish, and Italian dual-earner households. European Sociological Review,25, 603–617. CrossRef
Chaudry, A. (2004). Putting children first: How low-wage working mothers manage child care. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Cloïn, M., Schols, M., Van den Broek, A., & Koutamanis, M. (2010). Tijd op orde? Een analyse van de tijdsorde vanuit het perspectief van de burger [Time on budget? An analysis of time management from the perspective of the citizen]. The Hague: Netherlands Institute for Social Research.
Craig, L., & Powell, A. (2011). Non-standard work schedules, work-family balance and the gendered division of childcare. Work, Employment & Society,25, 274–291. CrossRef
De Leeuw, E. D., & De Heer, W. (2001). Trends in household survey nonresponse: A longitudinal and international comparison. In R. M. Groves, D. A. Dillman, J. L. Eltinge, & R. J. A. Little (Eds.), Survey nonresponse (pp. 41–54). New York: Wiley.
Duncan, S., Edwards, R., Reynolds, T., & Alldred, P. (2004). Mothers and child care: Policies, values and theories. Children and Society,18, 254–265. CrossRef
Duncan, K. A., & Pettigrew, R. N. (2012). The effect of work arrangements on perception of work-family balance. Community, Work & Family,15, 403–423. CrossRef
Dutch Bureau of Statistics. (2012a). Beroepsbevolking; behaalde onderwijs naar herkomst geslacht en leeftijd [Labor force participation; attained level of education by origin, gender and age]. Retrieved from http://statline.cbs.nl.
Dutch Bureau of Statistics. (2012b). Gemiddeld inkomen; particuliere huishoudens naar diverse kenmerken [Mean income; private households by multiple characteristics]. Retrieved from http://statline.cbs.nl.
Dutch Bureau of Statistics. (2014). Minder kinderen naar kinderdagverblijven [Less children to day-care]. Retrieved from http://www.cbs.nl/nl-NL/menu/themas/dossiers/jongeren/publicaties/artikelen/archief/2014/2014-4024-wm.htm.
Dutch Government. (2014). Welke vormen van kinderopvang zijn er? [Which types of child care exist?]. Retrieved from http://www.rijksoverheid.nl/onderwerpen/kinderopvang/vraag-en-antwoord/welke-vormen-van-kinderopvang-zijn-er.html.
Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment. (2014). Kamerbrief cijfers kinderopvang 2013. [Letter to the House of Representatives concerning the 2013 child-care figures]. Retrieved from http://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten-en-publicaties/kamerstukken/2014/03/24/kamerbrief-cijfers-kinderopvang-2013.html.
Dykstra, P. A., Kalmijn, M., Knijn, T. C. M., Liefbroer, A. C., & Mulder, C. H. (2005). Codebook of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study: A multi- actor, multi- method panel study on solidarity in family relationships, wave 1 (NKPS Working Paper No 5). The Hague: Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute.
EACEA. (2009). Early childhood education and care in Europe: Tackling social and cultural inequalities: The Netherlands. Brussels: EACEA.
Early, D., & Burchinal, M. (2001). Early childhood care: Relations with family characteristics and preferred care characteristics. Early Childhood Research Quarterly,16, 475–497. CrossRef
Ehrle, J., Adams, G., & Tout, K. (2001). Who’s caring for our youngest children?: Child care patterns of infants and toddlers. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
EU Labour Force Survey. (2013). Part-time employment as a percentage of the total employment, by sex and age (%). Retrieved from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/search_database.
Fleetwood, S. (2007). Why work-life balance now? International Journal of Human Resource Management,18, 387–400. CrossRef
Gareis, K. C., Barnett, R. C., & Brennan, R. T. (2003). Individual and crossover effects of work schedule fit: A within-couple analysis. Journal of Marriage and Family,65, 1041–1054. CrossRef
Han, W. J. (2004). Nonstandard work schedules and child care decisions: Evidence from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Early Childhood Research Quarterly,19, 231–256. CrossRef
Hattery, A. J. (2001). Tag-team parenting: Costs and benefits of utilizing nonoverlapping shift work in families with young children. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services,82, 419–427. CrossRef
Hsin, A. (2008). Parenting, investments in children and the social reproduction of skills and status. (Doctoral dissertation). University of California, Los Angeles.
Kim, J., & Fram, M. S. (2009). Profiles of choice: Parents’ patterns of priority in child care decision-making. Early Childhood Research Quarterly,24, 77–91. CrossRef
Kimmel, J., & Powell, L. M. (2006). Nonstandard work and child care choices of married mothers. Eastern Economic Journal,32, 397–419.
Leslie, L. A., Ettenson, R., & Cumsille, P. (2000). Selecting a child care center: What really matters to parents? Child & Youth Care Forum,29, 299–322. CrossRef
Lesnard, L. (2008). Off-scheduling within dual-earner couples: An unequal and negative externality for family time. American Journal of Sociology,114, 447–490. CrossRef
Liu, M. (2013). An ecological review of literature on factors influencing working mothers’ child care arrangements. Journal of Child and Family Studies,22, 1–11. CrossRef
Lu, M., & Yang, W. (2012). Multivariate logistic regression analysis of complex survey data with application to BRFSS data. Journal of Data Science,10, 157–173.
Merens, A., Hartgers, M., & Van den Brakel, M. (2012). Emancipatiemonitor 2012 [Emancipation monitor 2012]. The Hague: Netherlands Institute for Social Research.
Mills, M., Mencarini, L., Tanturri, M. L., & Begall, K. (2008). Gender equity and fertility intentions in Italy and the Netherlands. Demographic Research,18, 1–26. CrossRef
Moilanen, S., May, V., Räikkönen, E., Sevón, E., & Laakso, M.-L. (in press). Mothers’ non-standard working and childcare-related challenges: A comparison between lone and coupled mothers. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy.
Netherlands Institute for Social Research & Dutch Bureau of Statistics. (2013). Krimp in Kinderopvang [Contraction in childcare]. The Hague: Netherlands Institute for Social Research.
OECD Family Database. (2009). Maternal employment. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/els/family/oecdfamilydatabase.htm.
OECD Family Database. (2012). Children in families by employment status. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/els/social/family/database.
Osnowitz, D. (2005). Managing time in domestic space home-based contractors and household work. Gender & Society,19, 83–103. CrossRef
Peters, P., & Den Dulk, L. (2003). Cross cultural differences in managers’ support for home-based telework: A theoretical elaboration. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management,3, 329–346. CrossRef
Plantenga, J., & Remery, C. (2009). The provision of childcare services. A comparative review of 30 European countries. Brussels: European Commission DG for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities.
Portegijs, W., Cloïn, M., & Merens, A. (2014). Contraction in childcare. The Hague: Netherlands Institute for Social Research.
Presser, H. B. (2003). Working in a 24/7 economy: Challenges for American families. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Presser, H. B., Gornick, J. C., & Parashar, S. (2008). Gender and nonstandard work hours in 12 European countries. Monthly Labor Review,131, 83–103.
Roeters, A., Van der Lippe, T., & Kluwer, E. S. (2009). Parental work demands and the frequency of child-related routine and interactive activities. Journal of Marriage and Family,71, 1193–1204. CrossRef
Roeters, A., Van Der Lippe, T., & Kluwer, E. S. (2010). Work characteristics and parent-child relationship quality: The mediating role of temporal involvement. Journal of Marriage and Family,72, 1317–1328. CrossRef
Sandstrom, H., & Chaudry, A. (2012). ‘You have to choose your childcare to fit your work’: Childcare decision-making among low-income working families. Journal of Children and Poverty,18, 89–119. CrossRef
Saraceno, C. (2011). Childcare needs and childcare policies: A multidimensional issue. Current Sociology,59, 78–96. CrossRef
Täht, K., & Mills, M. C. (2012). Nonstandard work schedules, couple desynchronization and parent-child interaction: A mixed-method analysis. Journal of Family Issues,33, 1054–1087. CrossRef
Thomese, F., & Liefbroer, A. C. (2013). Child care and child births: The role of grandparents in the Netherlands. Journal of Marriage and Family,75, 403–421. CrossRef
Thuiswerken wordt wettelijk recht [Home-based telework becomes legal right]. (2015). De Volkskrant. Retrieved from http://www.volkskrant.nl/.
Tijdens, K., & Dragstra, A. (2007). ‘How many hours do you usually work?’: An analysis of the working hours questions in 26 large-scale surveys in six countries and the European Union. Time & Society,16, 119–130. CrossRef
Van Klaveren, C., Maassen van den Brink, H., & Van Praag, B. (2013). Intra-household work timing: The effect on joint activities and the demand for child care. European Sociological Review,29, 1–18. CrossRef
Van Wel, F., & Knijn, T. (2006). Transitional phase or a new balance? Working and caring by mothers with young children in the Netherlands. Journal of Family Issues,27, 633–651. CrossRef
Wheelock, J., & Jones, K. (2002). Grandparents are the next best thing: Informal childcare for working parents in urban Britain. Journal of Social Policy,31, 441–463. CrossRef
Wight, V. R., Raley, S. B., & Bianchi, S. M. (2008). Time for children, one’s spouse and oneself among parents who work nonstandard hours. Social Forces,87, 243–271. CrossRef
Wurtz, A. (2008). Child outcomes: Parental time investments and school characteristics. (Doctoral dissertation). Århus University, Denmark.
Zinsser, C. (2001). Child care within the family. The Future of Children,11, 123–127. CrossRef
- Couples’ Work Schedules and Child-Care Use in the Netherlands
Tanja van der Lippe
- Springer US