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Coronary bronchial artery fistulas (CBFs) are rare anomalies, which may be isolated or associated with other disorders.
Two adult patients with CBFs are described and a PubMed search was performed using the keywords “coronary bronchial artery fistulas” in the period from 2008 to 2013.
Twenty-seven reviewed subjects resulting in a total of 31 fistulas were collected. Asymptomatic presentation was reported in 5 subjects (19 %), chest pain (n = 17) was frequently present followed by haemoptysis (n = 7) and dyspnoea (n = 5). Concomitant disorders were bronchiectasis (44 %), diabetes (33 %) and hypertension (28 %). Multimodality and single-modality diagnostic strategies were applied in 56 % and 44 %, respectively. The origin of the CBFs was the left circumflex artery in 61 %, the right coronary artery in 36 % and the left anterior descending artery in 3 %. Management was conservative (22 %), surgical ligation (11 %), percutaneous transcatheter embolisation (30 %), awaiting lung transplantation (7 %) or not reported (30 %).
CBFs may remain clinically silent, or present with chest pain or haemoptysis. CBFs are commonly associated with bronchiectasis and usually require a multimodality approach to be diagnosed. Several treatment strategies are available. This report presents two adult cases with CBFs and a review of the literature.
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