Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
According to the Unexpected-Event Hypothesis (UEH) (Frensch, Haider, Rünger, Neugebauer, Voigt & Werg, 2002), conflicts between expected and actually performed behaviors trigger attribution processes and ultimately lead to the ability to verbally report an incidentally experienced sequential regularity. In two experiments, we manipulated the likelihood that a specific conflict, a premature response, occurred in a sequential version of the Number Reduction Task (NRT). Experiment 1 demonstrated that a longer RSI leads to a larger number of premature responses and to more verbal report than a shorter RSI. However, this effect of the RSI on verbal report was removed when participants were discouraged from emitting premature responses. Experiment 2 revealed that artificially inducing premature responses leads to an increase in verbal report, but only when premature responses are introduced late in training. Overall, the findings strongly support the assumptions of the UEH.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Block, N. (1995). On a confusion about a function of consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 18, 227–287. CrossRef
Dienes, Z., & Perner, J. (2002). A theory of the implicit nature of implicit learning. In R. M. French & A. Cleeremans (Eds.), Implicit learning and consciousness: An empirical, philosophical, and computational consensus in the making (pp. 68–92). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
Frensch, P. A., Haider, H., Rünger, D., Neugebauer, U., Voigt, S., & Werg, J. (2002). Verbal report of incidentally experienced environmental regularity: The route from implicit learning to verbal expression of what has been learned. In L. Jiménez (Ed.), Attention and implicit learning (pp. 335–366). New York: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Frensch, P. A., & Rünger, D. (2003). Implicit learning. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, 13–18. CrossRef
Grosjean, M., Rosenbaum, D. A., & Elsinger, C. (2001). Timing and reaction time. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130, 256–272. CrossRef
Haider, H., & Frensch, P. A. (2002). Why aggregated learning follows the power law of practice when individual learning does not: Comment on Rickard (1997, 1999), Delaney et al. (1998) and Palmeri (1999). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 28, 392–406. CrossRef
Haider, H., Frensch, P. A., & Joram, D. (2005). Are strategy shifts caused by data-driven processes or by voluntary processes? Consciousness & Cognition, 14, 495–519.
Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hoffmann, J., & Koch, I. (1997). Stimulus–response compatibility and sequential learning in the serial reaction time task. Psychological Research, 60, 87–97. CrossRef
Hoyndorf, A., & Haider, H. (2008). The “Not Letting Go” phenomenon: Accuracy instructions can impair behavioral and metacognitive effects of implicit learning processes. Psychological Research. doi: 10.1007/s00426-008-0180-4.
Kinder, A., Shanks, D. R., Cock, J., & Tunney, R. J. (2003). Recollection, fluency, and the explicit/implicit distinction in artificial grammar learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132, 551–565. CrossRef
Loftus, G. R., & Masson, M. E. J. (1994). Using confidence intervals in within-subject designs. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1, 476–490.
Mandler, G. (2002). Consciousness recovered: Psychological functions and origins of conscious thought. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Pub.
Nissen, M. J., & Bullemer, P. (1987). Attentional requirements of learning: Evidence from performance measures. Cognitive Psychology, 19, 1–32. CrossRef
Norman, D. A. (1969). Attention to action: Willed and automatic control of behavior. In R. J. Davidson, G. E. Schwarts, & D. Shapiro (Eds.), Consciousness and self-regulation. Advances in research and theory (Vol. 4, pp. 1–18). New York: Plenum Press.
Perruchet, P., Bigand, E., & Benoit-Gonin, F. (1997). The emergence of explicit knowledge during the early phase of learning in sequential reaction time task. Psychological Research, 60, 4–13. CrossRef
Perruchet, P., & Vinter, A. (2002). The self-organizing consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 25, 297–330. PubMed
Rose, M., Haider, H., Weiller, C., & Büchel, C. (2004). The relevance of the nature of learned associations for the differentiation of human memory systems. Learning & Memory, 11, 145–152. CrossRef
Shanks, D. R. (2003). Attention and awareness in “implicit” sequence learning. In L. Jiménez (Ed.), Attention and implicit learning (pp. 11–42). New York: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Shanks, D. R. (2005). Implicit Learning. Handbook of Cognition (pp. 202–221). London: Sage Publications.
Shanks, D. R., & Perruchet, P. (2002). Dissociation between priming and recognition in the expression of sequential knowledge. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, 362–367.
Squire, L. (1992). Declarative and nondeclarative memory: Multiple brain systems supporting learning and memory. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 4, 232–243. CrossRef
Stadler, M., & Frensch, P. A. (1998). Handbook of implicit learning. London: Sage Publications.
Thurstone, L. L., & Thurstone, T. G. (1941). Factorial studies of intelligence. Psychometric Monographs, No 2 94.
Whittlesea, B. W. A. (2002). Two routes to remembering (and another to remembering not). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 131, 325–348. CrossRef
Whittlesea, B. W. A., & Dorken, J. P. (1993). Incidentally, things in general are particularly determined: An episodic-processing account of implicit learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 122, 227–248. CrossRef
Willingham, D. B., & Goedert-Eschmann, K. (1999). The relation between implicit and explicit learning: Evidence for parallel development. Psychological Science, 10, 531–534. CrossRef
Woltz, D. J., Bell, B. G., Kyllonen, P. C., & Gardner, M. K. (1996). Memory for order of operations in the acquisition and transfer of sequential cognitive skills. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 438–457. CrossRef
- Conflicts between expected and actually performed behavior lead to verbal report of incidentally acquired sequential knowledge
Peter A. Frensch