Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The research presented here is funded by DFG (DR 392/6-3). The authors would like to thank Anja Berger for data collection.
Context-specific processing adjustments are one signature feature of flexible human action control. However, up to now the precise mechanisms underlying these adjustments are not fully understood. Here it is argued that aversive signals produced by conflict- or disfluency-experience originally motivate such context-specific processing adjustments. We tested whether the efficiency of the aversive conflict signal for control adaptation depends on the affective nature of the context it is presented in. In two experiments, high vs. low proportions of aversive signals (Experiment 1: conflict trials; Experiment 2: disfluent trials) were presented either above or below the screen center. This location manipulation was motivated by existing evidence that verticality is generally associated with affective valence with up being positive and down being negative. From there it was hypothesized that the aversive signals would lose their trigger function for processing adjustments when presented at the lower (i.e., more negative) location. This should then result in a reduced context-specific proportion effect when the high proportion of aversive signals was presented at the lower location. Results fully confirmed the predictions. In both experiments, the location-specific proportion effects were only present when the high proportion of aversive signals occurred at the more positive location above but were reduced (Experiment 1) or even eliminated (Experiment 2) when the high proportion occurred at the more negative location below. This interaction of processing adjustments with affective background contexts can thus be taken as further hint for an affective origin of control adaptations.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Bless, H., & Schwarz, N. (2010). Mental construal and the emergence of assimilation and contrast effects: the inclusion/exclusion model. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 42(42), 319–373. CrossRef
Bugg, J. M., & Hutchison, K. A. (2013). Converging evidence for control of color-word Stroop interference at the item-level. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 39, 433–449. PubMed
Casasanto, D. (2009). Embodiment of abstract concepts: Good and bad in right- and left-handers. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 138(3), 351–367. CrossRef
Crump, M. J. C., Gong, Z., & Milliken, B. (2006). The context-specific proportion congruent effect: location as a contextual cue. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 316–321. CrossRef
Crump, M. J. C., & Logan, G. D. (2010). Contextual control over task-set retrieval. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 72, 2047–2053. CrossRef
Crump, M. J. C., & Milliken, B. (2009). The flexibility of context-specific control: evidence for context-driven generalization of item-specific control settings. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 1523–1532. CrossRef
Dehaene, S., Bossini, S., & Giraux, P. (1993). The mental representation of parity and number magnitude. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 122, 371–396. CrossRef
Diede, N. T., & Bugg, J. M. (2016). Spatial proximity as a determinant of context specific attentional settings. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics. Online First.
Dreisbach, G., & Fischer, R. (2016). Conflicts as aversive signals: Motivation for control adaptation in the service of affect regulation. In T. S. Braver (Ed.), Motivation and cognitive control (pp. 188–210). New York: Psychology Press.
Fazio, R. H. (2001). On the automatic activation of associated evaluations: An overview. Cognition and Emotion, 15(2), 115–141. CrossRef
Fischer, R., Dreisbach, G., & Goschke, T. (2008). Context-sensitive adjustments of cognitive control: conflict-adaptation effects are modulated by processing demands of the ongoing task. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34(3), 712–718. doi: 10.1037/0278-73188.8.131.522. CrossRefPubMed
Fritz, J., Fischer, R., & Dreisbach, G. (2015). The influence of negative stimulus features on conflict adaptation: evidence from fluency of processing. Frontiers in Psychology,. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00185.
Gottschalk, C. & Fischer, R. (2016). Activation of context-specific attentional control sets by exogenous allocation of visual attention to the context? Psychological Research. Online first.
Gozli, D. G., Chow, A., Chasteen, A. L., et al. (2013). Valence and vertical space: saccade trajectory deviations reveal metaphorical spatial activation. Visual Cognition, 21, 628–646. CrossRef
Posner, M. I., & Snyder, C. R. R. (1975). Attention and cognitive control. In R. L. Solso (Ed.), Information processing and cognition (pp. 55–85). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
Reber, R., Winkielman, P., & Schwarz, N. (1998). Effects of perceptual fluency on affective judgments. Psychological Science, 9, 45–48. CrossRef
Schmidt, J. R. (2013). Questioning conflict adaptation: proportion congruent and Gratton effects reconsidered. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 615–630. CrossRef
Schouppe, N., Braem, S., De Houwer, J., Silvetti, M., Verguts, T., Ridderinkhof, K. R., & Notebaert, W. (2015). No pain, no gain: The affective valence of congruency conditions changes following a successful response. Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience.
Shiffrin, R. M., & Schneider, W. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review, 84, 127–190. CrossRef
Wendt, M., Kluwe, R. H., & Vietze, I. (2008). Location-specific versus hemisphere-specific adaptation of processing selectivity. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15, 135–140. CrossRef
Winkielman, P., Schwarz, N., Fazendeiro, T. A., & Reber, R. (2003). The hedonic marking of processing fluency: Implications for evaluative judgements. In J. Musch & K. C. Klauer (Eds.), The psychology of evaluation: Affective processes in cognition and emotion (pp. 189–217). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Zhang, Ya., Hu, Jing, Zhang, Entao, et al. (2015). The influence of spatial representation on valence judgements: an event-related potential study. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 27, 218–226. CrossRef
- Conflict and disfluency as aversive signals: context-specific processing adjustments are modulated by affective location associations
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg