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Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology 5/2006

01-10-2006 | Original Paper

Conduct Problems, Depressive Symptomatology and Their Co-Occurring Presentation in Childhood as Predictors of Adjustment in Early Adolescence

Auteurs: Erin M. Ingoldsby, Gwynne O. Kohl, Robert J. McMahon, Liliana Lengua, The Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group

Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology | Uitgave 5/2006

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Abstract

The present study investigated patterns in the development of conduct problems (CP), depressive symptoms, and their co-occurrence, and relations to adjustment problems, over the transition from late childhood to early adolescence. Rates of depressive symptoms and CP during this developmental period vary by gender; yet, few studies involving non-clinical samples have examined co-occurring problems and adjustment outcomes across boys and girls. This study investigates the manifestation and change in CP and depressive symptom patterns in a large, multisite, gender-and ethnically-diverse sample of 431 youth from 5th to 7th grade. Indicators of CP, depressive symptoms, their co-occurrence, and adjustment outcomes were created from multiple reporters and measures. Hypotheses regarding gender differences were tested utilizing both categorical (i.e., elevated symptom groups) and continuous analyses (i.e., regressions predicting symptomatology and adjustment outcomes). Results were partially supportive of the dual failure model (Capaldi, 1991, 1992), with youth with co-occurring problems in 5th grade demonstrating significantly lower academic adjustment and social competence two years later. Both depressive symptoms and CP were risk factors for multiple negative adjustment outcomes. Co-occurring symptomatology and CP demonstrated more stability and was associated with more severe adjustment problems than depressive symptoms over time. Categorical analyses suggested that, in terms of adjustment problems, youth with co-occurring symptomatology were generally no worse off than those with CP-alone, and those with depressive symptoms-alone were similar over time to those showing no symptomatology at all. Few gender differences were noted in the relations among CP, depressive symptoms, and adjustment over time.
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1
Multiple imputation (MI) is an appropriate method for treating missing data if variables and correlates of the dependent variable that are thought to relate to the causes of missing data are included in the imputation model. First, missingness patterns were examined to insure that data met missing-at-random assumptions. Thirty-two participants were missing all data (7% of sample) and these participants were excluded from any analyses. Of the 431 youth with some data, the percentage of missing data across measures ranged from 6% (25 youth were missing the parent reported Child Behavior Checklist at 5th grade) to 16% (70 youth were missing the Self-Report of Close Friends measure in 7th grade). MI was deemed appropriate for this dataset, as missing data numbered less than 30% and demonstrated an adequate random pattern of missingness, and means and standard deviations of imputed data almost exactly matched unimputed means (Schafer, 1997). The data set with which the imputation was conducted consisted of 35 variables including key demographic variables (e.g., gender, ethnicity, site, SES, three perceived neighborhood context variables) and all indicators by informant (e.g., parent-reported CP scores at 5th grade). Interaction terms were created after imputation.
 
2
To determine the level of clinical impairment that is reflected by the elevation criteria, and for comparison to other samples, all construct scores were re-calculated according to conventional scoring procedures, the score reflecting +.5 SD was identified, and compared to published T-scores (except youth report of CP, for which published norms were not available). T-score equivalents for the elevated cut-off scores are as follows, by gender, measure, and reporter. For girls, the cut-off score for parent CP equaled a T-score of 60 in 5th grade and a T-score of 63 in 7th grade (CBCL); and for teacher CP, the T-scores equaled 67 for both time points (TRF). For boys, the cut-off score for parent CP equaled a T-score of 57 in 5th grade and a T-score of 58 in 7th grade (CBCL); and for teacher CP, the T-scores equaled 64 for both time points (TRF). For depressive symptoms from the RCDS, T-score equivalents were unavailable. However, prior data analysis with this sample demonstrated that 14 youth were in the clinical range on this measure (McCarty & Doyle, 2001).
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Conduct Problems, Depressive Symptomatology and Their Co-Occurring Presentation in Childhood as Predictors of Adjustment in Early Adolescence
Auteurs
Erin M. Ingoldsby
Gwynne O. Kohl
Robert J. McMahon
Liliana Lengua
The Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group
Publicatiedatum
01-10-2006
Gepubliceerd in
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology / Uitgave 5/2006
Print ISSN: 2730-7166
Elektronisch ISSN: 2730-7174
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-006-9044-9

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