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01-10-2022 | Original Article

Combining egoformative and alloformative cues in a novel tabletop navigation task

Auteurs: Michael J. Starrett, Derek J. Huffman, Arne D. Ekstrom

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research

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Abstract

Previous work has shown how different interfaces (i.e., route navigation, maps, or a combination of the two) influence spatial knowledge and recollection. To test for the existence of intermediate representations along an egocentric-to-allocentric continuum, we developed a novel task, tabletop navigation, to provide a mixture of cues that inform the emergence of egocentric and allocentric representations or strategies. In this novel tabletop task, participants navigated a remote-controlled avatar through a tabletop scale model of the virtual city. Participants learned virtual cities from either navigating routes, studying maps, or our new tabletop navigation task. We interleaved these learning tasks with either an in situ pointing task (the scene- and orientation-dependent pointing [SOP] task) or imagined judgements of relative direction (JRD) pointing. In Experiment 1, performance on each memory task was similar across learning tasks and performance on the route and map learning tasks correlated with more precise spatial recall on both the JRD and SOP tasks. Tabletop learning performance correlated with SOP performance only, suggesting a reliance on egocentric strategies, although increased utilization of the affordances of the tabletop task were related to JRD performance. In Experiment 2, using a modified criterion map learning task, participants who learned using maps provided more precise responses on the JRD compared to route or tabletop learning. Together, these findings provide mixed evidence for both optimization and egocentric predominance after learning from the novel tabletop navigation task.
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Voetnoten
1
L. Nadel (personal communication, May 8, 2021) suggested egoformative and alloformative cues should be distinguished from egocentric and allocentric representations as the latter are abstract and conceptual in nature while the former are concrete and present in the environment.
 
2
The orientation within the environment can be established in various ways such as blocking the view of the environment from an already oriented person (Wang & Spelke, 2000), or providing a disoriented person with a viewpoint from within the environment and allowing them to change their view and/or position until they are sufficiently oriented (Zhang et al., 2012, 2014).
 
3
While the length of the study period used by Zhang et al. (2014) was deliberately selected to equalize JRD performance across route and map learning on the first block, it is arbitrary in the sense that humans are unlikely to impose such a restriction in naturalistic settings (e.g., knowing how to get to the office of a new job).
 
4
We used Euclidean distance as the metric for optimal path as opposed to city block distance (see Newman et al., 2007). As Newman and colleagues explain, city block optimal path does not account for curved paths, while Euclidean optimal path overestimates the ability to do so. The Euclidean metric was deemed more appropriate here, as participants could not only take curvilinear paths but also move between buildings (i.e., through blocks).
 
5
This package is now deprecated (outdated and no longer officially supported by the developer). A new version of the blob client, with code samples, is available (https://​github.​com/​Azure/​azure-sdk-for-net/​tree/​Azure.​Storage.​Blobs_​12.​8.​0/​sdk/​storage/​Azure.​Storage.​Blobs/​). Modified code used in the present work can also be found in the source code for Landmarks (https://​github.​com/​mjstarrett/​Landmarks).
 
6
Straightlining occurs when respondents provide similar or identical responses to multiple items on a survey or questionnaire, resulting in a reduction in data quality.
 
7
\({\mathrm{log}}_{e}(a)- {\mathrm{log}}_{e}\left(b\right)= {\mathrm{log}}_{e}(a/b)\).
 
8
For route and map encoding tasks, this refers to raw scores for navigational excess path in meters, as the raw scores were continuous. For timed map learning and criterion map encoding tasks, the continuous logit-transformed values were used instead of the discrete “raw” proportion scores.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Combining egoformative and alloformative cues in a novel tabletop navigation task
Auteurs
Michael J. Starrett
Derek J. Huffman
Arne D. Ekstrom
Publicatiedatum
01-10-2022
Uitgeverij
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Gepubliceerd in
Psychological Research
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-022-01739-y