This commentary synthesizes research examining cognitive mechanisms underlying the links between anxiety, health behaviors, and illness outcomes. We provide a brief summary of contributions to this special issue and review common themes and methodological limitations. Notably, a number of related constructs emerged as amplification factors, increasing vulnerability to psychopathology and maladaptive health behaviors. These include anxiety sensitivity, distress and discomfort intolerance, emotion regulation, health literacy, and repetitive negative thinking. Finally, we discuss clinical implications, and conclude with suggestions for further research in this area.