Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10802-012-9617-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
This research was supported by a gift from Patricia and Rodes Hart, by support from the Warren Family Foundation, and by grants from NICHD: 1R01HD059891 to David A. Cole and P30HD15052 to the Kennedy Center of Vanderbilt University. We are grateful to Amy Jacky for her tireless help throughout this project.
Attributional style models of depression in adults (Abramson et al. 1989, 1978) have been adapted for use with children; however, most applications do not consider that children’s understanding of causal relations may be qualitatively different from that of adults. If children’s causal attributions depend on children’s level of cognitive development, then support for attributional models of depression in young people will vary with cognitive development. In this paper, a new measure of cognitive development, the Peabody Causal Reasoning Test (PCRT), is introduced to assess children’s understanding of ability versus effort, task difficulty, and luck as causal factors. Analyses revealed that in 8- to 16-year-old children, failure to control for level of cognitive development suppressed empirical support for cognitive diathesis-stress models of depression. Statistically controlling for measures of cognitive development strengthened support for this model.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Supplementary Material (DOCX 940 kb)10802_2012_9617_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: a theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358–372. CrossRef
Aroian, L. A. (1944/1947). The probability function of the product of two normally distributed variables. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 18, 265–271. CrossRef
Cartwright-Hatton, S., & Murray, J. (2008). Cognitive therapy with children and families: treating internalizing disorders. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36, 749–756. CrossRef
Chi, M. (1983). Trends in memory development research. Contributions to Human Development, 9, 125.
Craighead, W. E., Smucker, M. R., Craighead, L. W., & Ilardi, S. S. (1998). Factor analysis of the Children’s Depression Inventory in a community sample. Psychological Assessment, 10, 156–165. CrossRef
Floyd, F. J., & Widaman, K. F. (1995). Factor analysis in the development and refinement of clinical assessment instruments. Psychological Assessment, 7, 286–299. CrossRef
Folmer, A. S., Cole, D. A., Sigal, A. B., Benbow, L. D., Satterwhite, L. F., Swygert, K. E., & Ciesla, J. A. (2008). Age-related changes in children’s understanding of effort and ability: implications for attribution theory and motivation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 99, 114–134. PubMedCrossRef
Goodman, L. A. (1960). On the exact variance of products. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 55, 708–713.
Hankin, B. L., & Abramson, L. Y. (2002). Measuring cognitive vulnerability to depression in adolescence: reliability, validity, and gender differences. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31, 491–504. PubMed
Horst, P., Wallin, P., Guttman, L., Wallin, F. B., Clausen, J., Reed, R., & Rosenthal, E. (1941). The prediction of personal adjustment: a survey of logical problems and research techniques, with illustrative application to problems of vocational selection, school success, marriage, and crime. New York, NY: Social Science Research Council.
Joiner, T. E., & Wagner, K. D. (1995). Attribution style and depression in children and adolescents: a meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 15, 777–798. CrossRef
Kinlaw, C. R., & Kurtz-Costes, B. (2003). The development of children’s beliefs about intelligence. Developmental Review, 23, 125–161.
Knol, D. L., & ten Berge, J. M. F. (1989). Least-squares approximation of an improper correlation matrix by a proper one. Psychometrika, 54, 53–61. CrossRef
Kovacs, M. (1985). A children’s depression inventory (CDI). Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 21, 995–998. PubMed
MacKinnon, D. P., Krull, J. L., & Lockwood, C. M. (2000). Equivalence of the mediation, confounding and suppression effect. Prevention Science, 1, 173–181.
McClelland, J. (1989). Parallel distributed processing: implications for cognition and development. In: R. G. Morris (Ed.), Parallel distributed processing: implications for psychology and neurobiology (pp. 8–45). New York, NY: Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press.
Miller, P. H., & Aloise, P. A. (1989). Young children’s understanding of the psychological causes of behavior: a review. Child Development, 60, 257–285.
Nicholls, J. G. (1978). The development of the concepts of effort and ability, perception of academic attainment, and the understanding that difficult tasks require more ability. Child Development, 49, 800–814. CrossRef
Nicholls, J. G. (1980). The development of the concept of difficulty. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly: Journal of Developmental Psychology, 26, 271–281.
Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91, 328–346. CrossRef
Nicholls, J. G., & Miller, A. T. (1984). Reasoning about the ability of self and others: a developmental study. Child Development, 55, 1990–1999. CrossRef
Nicholls, J. G., & Miller, A. T. (1985). Differentiation of the concepts of luck and skill. Developmental Psychology, 21, 76–82. CrossRef
Piaget, J. (1981). Intelligence and affectivity: their relationship during child development. Oxford, England: Annual Reviews.
Rholes, W. S., Blackwell, J., Jordan, C., & Walters, C. (1980). A developmental study of learned helplessness. Developmental Psychology, 16, 616–624. CrossRef
Ruble, D. N., Boggiano, A. K., Feldman, N. S., & Loebl, J. H. (1980). Developmental analysis of the role of social comparison in self-evaluation. Developmental Psychology, 16, 105–115.
Salthouse, T. A., Fristoe, N., & Rhee, S. H. (1996). How localized are age-related effects on neuropsychological measures? Neuropsychology, 10, 272–285. CrossRef
Sattler, J. M., & Dumont, R. (2004). Assessment of children: WISC-IV and WPPSI-IV supplement. San Diego: Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Shaklee, H. (1976). Development in inferences of ability and task difficulty. Child Development, 47, 1051–1057. CrossRef
Siegler, R. S. (1996). Emerging minds: The process of change in children’s thinking. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Skinner, E. (1990). Age differences in the dimensions of perceived control during middle childhood: implications for developmental conceptualizations and research. Child Development, 6, 1882–1890. CrossRef
Smith, C., Carey, S., & Wiser, M. (1985). On differentiation: a case study of the development of the concepts of size, weight, and density. Cognition, 21, 177–237.
Thorkildsen, T. A., & White-McNulty, L. (2002). Developing conceptions of fair contest procedures and the understanding of skill and luck. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 316–326. CrossRef
Timbremont, B., Braet, C., & Dreessen, L. (2004). Assessing depression in youth: relation between the Children’s Depression Inventory and a Structured Interview. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 149–157.
Troyer, A. K., Cullum, C. M., Smernoff, E. N., & Kozora, E. (1994). Age effects on block design: qualitative performance features and extended-time effects. Neuropsychology, 8, 95–99. CrossRef
Uebersax, J. S. (2006). Factor analysis and SEM with tetrachoric and polychoric correlations. Retrieved April 28, 2010, from Statistical Methods for Rater Agreement web site: http://john-uebersax.com/stat/sem.htm.
Waber, D. P., de Moor, C., Forbes, P. W., Almli, C. R., Botteron, K. N., Leonard, G., Milovan, D., Paus, T., Rumsey, J., & The Brain Development Cooperative Group. (2007). The NIH MRI study of normal brain development: performance of a population based sample of healthy children aged 6-18 years on a neuropsychological battery. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 729–746. PubMedCrossRef
Wechsler, D. (2003). Wechsler intelligence scale for children (4th ed.). San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.
Weisz, J. R., Yeats, K. O., Robertson, D., & Beckham, J. C. (1982). Perceived contingency of skill and chance events: a developmental analysis. Developmental Psychology, 18, 898–905. CrossRef
- Cognitive Development Masks Support for Attributional Style Models of Depression in Children and Adolescents
Amy S. Weitlauf
David A. Cole
- Springer US