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01-12-2012 | Research | Uitgave 1/2012 Open Access

Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 1/2012

Classification of the height and flexibility of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot

Tijdschrift:
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research > Uitgave 1/2012
Auteurs:
Mette Kjærgaard Nilsson, Rikke Friis, Maria Skjoldahl Michaelsen, Patrick Abildgaard Jakobsen, Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen
Belangrijke opmerkingen

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1757-1146-5-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Mette Kjærgaard Nilsson, Rikke Friis, Maria Skjoldahl Michaelsen, Patrick Abildgaard Jakobsen and Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen contributed equally to this work.

Competing interests

Financial competing interests

None of the authors hold any stocks or shares in an organization or have received reimbursements, fees, funding, or salary from an organization that may in any given way gain or lose financially from the publication of this manuscript, either now or in the future. None of the authors or organizations are currently applying for patents relating to the content of the manuscript.

Non-financial competing interests

There are no political, personal, religious, ideological, academic, intellectual, commercial or any other competing interests related to the content of the manuscript.

Authors' contributions

All authors read and approved the final manuscript. MKN carried out the acquisition of data and has been involved in drafting the manuscript. RF carried out the acquisition of data and has been involved in drafting the manuscript. MSM carried out the acquisition of data and has been involved in drafting the manuscript. PAJ carried out the acquisition of data and has been involved in drafting the manuscript. RON has made substantial contributions to conception, design, analysis, and interpretation of data as well as revised the manuscript critically for important intellectual content.

Abstract

Background

The risk of developing injuries during standing work may vary between persons with different foot types. High arched and low arched feet, as well as rigid and flexible feet, are considered to have different injury profiles, while those with normal arches may sustain fewer injuries. However, the cut-off values for maximum values (subtalar position during weight-bearing) and range of motion (ROM) values (difference between subtalar neutral and subtalar resting position in a weight-bearing condition) for the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify cut-off values for maximum values and ROM of the MLA of the foot during static tests and to identify factors influencing foot posture.

Methods

The participants consisted of 254 volunteers from Central and Northern Denmark (198 m/56 f; age 39.0 ± 11.7 years; BMI 27.3 ± 4.7 kg/m2). Navicular height (NH), longitudinal arch angle (LAA) and Feiss line (FL) were measured for either the left or the right foot in a subtalar neutral position and subtalar resting position. Maximum values and ROM were calculated for each test. The 95% and 68% prediction intervals were used as cut-off limits. Multiple regression analysis was used to detect influencing factors on foot posture.

Results

The 68% cut-off values for maximum MLA values and MLA ROM for NH were 3.6 to 5.5 cm and 0.6 to 1.8 cm, respectively, without taking into account the influence of other variables. Normal maximum LAA values were between 131 and 152° and normal LAA ROM was between -1 and 13°. Normal maximum FL values were between -2.6 and -1.2 cm and normal FL ROM was between -0.1 and 0.9 cm. Results from the multivariate linear regression revealed an association between foot size with FL, LAA, and navicular drop.

Conclusions

The cut-off values presented in this study can be used to categorize people performing standing work into groups of different foot arch types. The results of this study are important for investigating a possible link between arch height and arch movement and the development of injuries.

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