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This chapter addresses the most common risk factors increasing maternal and offspring health disadvantages. Psychosocial vulnerability, including maternal stress and substance abuse, overweight and obesity, psychiatric disorders, chronic and acute infections, autoimmunity, chronic kidney disease and hypertension, cardiac disorders, either acquired or congenital, and diabetes mellitus are systematically evaluated on the effect of the condition on pregnancy and vice versa, and the possible effect of specific disease-modifying drugs.
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The situation in which an individual’s psychological condition and the surrounding social environment affect physical and mental wellness and the ability to function is reduced
BMI (body mass index)
The ratio for weight to square height, which defines normal weight from underweight and overweight and obesity
Mental disorders or distress or the manifestation of behaviours and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment
The presence or invasion of organisms in body tissues, their disease-causing agents, multiplication, and reaction of host tissues to infectious agents and toxins produced
System of immune responses against the body’s own healthy cells and tissues that usually results in organism disease
Chronic kidney disease
Certain type of kidney disease in which there is a gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years
A condition characterized by persistently elevated arterial blood pressure
A cluster of problems that anatomically or dynamically attenuate normal pump function
A condition in which blood glucose levels are variably elevated above the expected reference values.
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- Chronic risk conditions and pregnancy
Marc E. A. Spaanderman
Dr Hilmar Bijma
Dr Johannes J. Duvekot
Dr Mariëlle G. van Pampus
Dr Elisabeth van Leeuwen
Dr Jerome M. J. Cornette
Dr Titia A. T. Lely
Dr Louis L. H. Peeters
Dr Chahinda Ghossein-Doha
- Bohn Stafleu van Loghum