Skip to main content
Top

28-05-2024 | Research

Children’s metacognition and cognitive offloading in an immediate memory task

Auteurs: Catriona Iley, Srdan Medimorec

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Cognitive offloading is used to supplement internal processing demands through external actions such as writing down information. While metacognition plays a critical role in adults’ cognitive offloading decisions, less is known about the relation between metacognition and cognitive offloading in children. Here, we introduced an immediate memory task to 11- to 12-year-olds under two conditions: no choice to offload and choice to offload. Participants made metacognitive judgements about their memory capacity, and the task performance components such as accuracy and effort. Our results revealed that recall accuracy of the to-be-remembered items increased in the choice condition. Interestingly, while there was a consensus amongst participants that they chose to offload to maximise accuracy and reduce effort, there was no relation between offloading behaviour and metacognitions about accuracy and effort. On the other hand, metacognition for memory capacity was related to offloading behaviour. We discuss the implications for further understanding of the relation between cognitive offloading and metacognition in children.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Voetnoten
1
In the no choice condition, the proportion of recalled items decreased with an increase in set size (across all set pairs all ps < 0.001, ds > 0.91); in the choice condition the trend was similar for all pairs (ps < 0.006, ds > 0.51), but with no difference between the sets 6 and 8 (p = .302, d = 0.18).
 
2
Offloading did not result in 100% accuracy due to errors in the offloading process. Forty-five errors were made in total (6.81% of all offloading trials). The errors were coded into errors due to incorrect writing (57.78% of total errors), incorrect reading of the letters when reporting to the researcher (35.56% of total errors; 
this result could be attributed to the instances where handwriting was not clear) and partial offloading (6.67% of total errors). However, there were 14 instances of partial offloading or writing incorrectly that did not lead to errors (2.12% of all choice trials; this result could potentially indicate that in some cases of (incorrect) offloading, participants might have relied on their memory instead).
 
3
Two participants also wrote down the number of letters to be heard in the choice condition.
 
4
Only one participant chose ‘other’, and they gave the reason, “I used paper and pen only on the 6 for some and 8 questions as they were more difficult for me”. As they used the word ‘difficult’ in their answer, it was recoded as option 2 (it reduced effort).
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Armitage, K. L., & Redshaw, J. (2022). Children boost their cognitive performance with a novel offloading technique. Child Development, 93(1), 25–38.CrossRefPubMed Armitage, K. L., & Redshaw, J. (2022). Children boost their cognitive performance with a novel offloading technique. Child Development, 93(1), 25–38.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bulley, A., McCarthy, T., Gilbert, S. J., Suddendorf, T., & Redshaw, J. (2020). Children devise and selectively use tools to offload cognition. Current Biology, 30, 3457–3464e3.CrossRefPubMed Bulley, A., McCarthy, T., Gilbert, S. J., Suddendorf, T., & Redshaw, J. (2020). Children devise and selectively use tools to offload cognition. Current Biology, 30, 3457–3464e3.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Destan, N., Hembacher, E., Ghetti, S., & Roebers, C. M. (2014). Early metacognitive abilities: The interplay of monitoring and control processes in 5- to 7-year-old children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 126, 213–228.CrossRefPubMed Destan, N., Hembacher, E., Ghetti, S., & Roebers, C. M. (2014). Early metacognitive abilities: The interplay of monitoring and control processes in 5- to 7-year-old children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 126, 213–228.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Dong, X., Liu, Y., & Lu, H. J. (2022). Effects of learning item difficulty and value on cognitive offloading during middle childhood. Metacognition and Learning, 17(3), 1097–1115.CrossRef Dong, X., Liu, Y., & Lu, H. J. (2022). Effects of learning item difficulty and value on cognitive offloading during middle childhood. Metacognition and Learning, 17(3), 1097–1115.CrossRef
go back to reference Folmer, A. S., Cole, D. A., Sigal, A. B., Benbow, L. D., Satterwhite, L. F., Swygert, K. E., & Ciesla, J. A. (2008). Age-related changes in children’s understanding of effort and ability: Implications for attribution theory and motivation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 99(2), 114–134.CrossRefPubMed Folmer, A. S., Cole, D. A., Sigal, A. B., Benbow, L. D., Satterwhite, L. F., Swygert, K. E., & Ciesla, J. A. (2008). Age-related changes in children’s understanding of effort and ability: Implications for attribution theory and motivation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 99(2), 114–134.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gilbert, S. J. (2015a). Strategic offloading of delayed intentions into the external environment. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68(5), 971–992.CrossRef Gilbert, S. J. (2015a). Strategic offloading of delayed intentions into the external environment. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68(5), 971–992.CrossRef
go back to reference Gilbert, S. J. (2015b). Strategic use of reminders: Influence of both domain-general and task-specific metacognitive confidence, independent of objective memory ability. Consciousness and Cognition, 33, 245–260.CrossRefPubMed Gilbert, S. J. (2015b). Strategic use of reminders: Influence of both domain-general and task-specific metacognitive confidence, independent of objective memory ability. Consciousness and Cognition, 33, 245–260.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gilbert, S. J., Bird, A., Carpenter, J. M., Fleming, S. M., Sachdeva, C., & Tsai, P. (2020). Optimal use of reminders: Metacognition, effort, and cognitive offloading. Journal of Experimental Psychology General, 149(3), 501–517.CrossRefPubMed Gilbert, S. J., Bird, A., Carpenter, J. M., Fleming, S. M., Sachdeva, C., & Tsai, P. (2020). Optimal use of reminders: Metacognition, effort, and cognitive offloading. Journal of Experimental Psychology General, 149(3), 501–517.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Grinschgl, S., Papenmeier, F., & Meyerhoff, H. S. (2021). Consequences of cognitive offloading: Boosting performance but diminishing memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (2006), 74(9), 1477–1496.CrossRefPubMed Grinschgl, S., Papenmeier, F., & Meyerhoff, H. S. (2021). Consequences of cognitive offloading: Boosting performance but diminishing memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (2006), 74(9), 1477–1496.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kuhn, D. (2000). Metacognitive development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9(5), 178–181.CrossRef Kuhn, D. (2000). Metacognitive development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9(5), 178–181.CrossRef
go back to reference Lemaire, P., & Callies, S. (2009). Children’s strategies in complex arithmetic. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 103(1), 49–65.CrossRefPubMed Lemaire, P., & Callies, S. (2009). Children’s strategies in complex arithmetic. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 103(1), 49–65.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lemaire, P., & Siegler, R. S. (1995). Four aspects of strategic change: Contributions to children’s learning of multiplication. Journal of Experimental Psychology General, 124(1), 83–97.CrossRefPubMed Lemaire, P., & Siegler, R. S. (1995). Four aspects of strategic change: Contributions to children’s learning of multiplication. Journal of Experimental Psychology General, 124(1), 83–97.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lockl, K., & Schneider, W. (2004). The effects of incentives and instructions on children’s allocation of study time. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 1(2), 153–169.CrossRef Lockl, K., & Schneider, W. (2004). The effects of incentives and instructions on children’s allocation of study time. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 1(2), 153–169.CrossRef
go back to reference Mathôt, S., Schreij, D., & Theeuwes, J. (2012). OpenSesame: An open-source, graphical experiment builder for the social sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 44(2), 314–324.CrossRefPubMed Mathôt, S., Schreij, D., & Theeuwes, J. (2012). OpenSesame: An open-source, graphical experiment builder for the social sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 44(2), 314–324.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Morrison, A. B., & Richmond, L. L. (2020). Offloading items from memory: Individual differences in cognitive offloading in a short-term memory task. Cognitive Research 5(1). Morrison, A. B., & Richmond, L. L. (2020). Offloading items from memory: Individual differences in cognitive offloading in a short-term memory task. Cognitive Research 5(1).
go back to reference Risko, E. F., & Dunn, T. L. (2015). Storing information in-the-world: Metacognition and cognitive offloading in a short-term memory task. Consciousness and Cognition, 36, 61–74.CrossRefPubMed Risko, E. F., & Dunn, T. L. (2015). Storing information in-the-world: Metacognition and cognitive offloading in a short-term memory task. Consciousness and Cognition, 36, 61–74.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Risko, E. F., & Gilbert, S. J. (2016). Cognitive offloading. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 20(9), 676–688.CrossRefPubMed Risko, E. F., & Gilbert, S. J. (2016). Cognitive offloading. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 20(9), 676–688.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Risko, E. F., Medimorec, S., Chisholm, J., & Kingstone, A. (2014). Rotating with rotated text: A natural behavior approach to investigating cognitive offloading. Cognitive Science, 38(3), 537–564.CrossRefPubMed Risko, E. F., Medimorec, S., Chisholm, J., & Kingstone, A. (2014). Rotating with rotated text: A natural behavior approach to investigating cognitive offloading. Cognitive Science, 38(3), 537–564.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Sachdeva, C., & Gilbert, S. J. (2020). Excessive use of reminders: Metacognition and effort-minimisation in cognitive offloading. Consciousness and Cognition, 85, 103024.CrossRefPubMed Sachdeva, C., & Gilbert, S. J. (2020). Excessive use of reminders: Metacognition and effort-minimisation in cognitive offloading. Consciousness and Cognition, 85, 103024.CrossRefPubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
Children’s metacognition and cognitive offloading in an immediate memory task
Auteurs
Catriona Iley
Srdan Medimorec
Publicatiedatum
28-05-2024
Uitgeverij
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Gepubliceerd in
Psychological Research
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-024-01978-1