Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research 5/2009

01-10-2009 | Original Article

Childhood Maltreatment and Depressotypic Cognitive Organization

Auteurs: Margaret N. Lumley, Kate L. Harkness

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 5/2009

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Recent research suggests that how information is organized in the mind may be important for determining one’s vulnerability to depression. The purpose of the current study was to examine potential developmental precursors to a depressotypic cognitive organization (i.e., tightly-connected negative schemas and loosely-connected positive schemas) in a sample of young adult men and women (N = 91). The relation between childhood maltreatment (i.e., mother emotional maltreatment, father emotional maltreatment, physical abuse, and sexual abuse) and cognitive organization was assessed using a computer task in which participants with different self-reported maltreatment histories plotted a series of cognitive schema contents (e.g., “I am a failure”) on a 2-dimensional grid along the dimensions of self-descriptiveness and valence. As hypothesized, higher levels of mother emotional maltreatment, father emotional maltreatment and physical abuse (but not sexual abuse) were associated with a depressotypic schema organization. Consistent with hypotheses, a depressotypic schema organization mediated the relation between maltreatment and depression, suggesting that the organization of cognitive schemas may help to elucidate why individuals with maltreatment histories are so vulnerable to develop depression.
Voetnoten
1
Although this research does not consider actual neurological structures in the brain, there is a growing area of research examining environmental experience (particularly early childhood experiences) on brain development (for review see Siegel 1999).
 
2
It is noteworthy that 34% of participants met criteria for past or current major depression in this study, despite no special measures to recruit depressed participants. One possibility is that potential participants with maltreatment histories were more likely to agree to participate when contacted and given the brief description, “this project investigates how childhood experiences relate to your thinking and mood”. Given the strong association between maltreatment and depression, having a higher ratio of maltreated individuals in the study may have inadvertently increased the ratio of past- or current-depressed to never-depressed participants.
 
3
Although the use of the Sable test has been criticized as overly conservative, especially in relatively small samples (Preacher and Hayes 2004), nonparametric approaches such as Shrout and Bolger’s bootstrapping approach (2002) are not appropriate for use with dichotomous outcomes variables. Due to concerns about power and the conservative nature of the Sobel test, we applied no further correction of alpha in the current investigation.
 
4
The past- and current-depressed groups did not differ in reported levels of M-EMT (M s = 36.29, 35.24, SD s = 14.44, 11.91; t (28) = −.76, p = .45) or F-EMT (M s = 43.69, 47.69 SD s = 13.23, 16.00; t (28) = .74, p = .47), thus further supporting our decision to combine them in these analyses.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Abela, J. R. Z., & Hankin, B. L. (2008). Cognitive vulnerability to depression in children and adolescents: A developmental psychopathology perspective. In J. R. Z. Abela & B. L. Hankin (Eds.), Depression in children and adolescents (pp. 35–78). New York: Guilford. Abela, J. R. Z., & Hankin, B. L. (2008). Cognitive vulnerability to depression in children and adolescents: A developmental psychopathology perspective. In J. R. Z. Abela & B. L. Hankin (Eds.), Depression in children and adolescents (pp. 35–78). New York: Guilford.
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
go back to reference Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression. Harper and Row: New York. Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression. Harper and Row: New York.
go back to reference Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press. Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press.
go back to reference Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1987). Manual for the beck depression inventory. Sanantonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1987). Manual for the beck depression inventory. Sanantonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
go back to reference Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Bifulco, A., Bernazzani, O., Moran, P., & Jacobs, C. (2005). The childhood experience of care and abuse questionnaire (CECA.Q.): Validation in a community series. The British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 563–581. doi: 10.​1348/​014466505X35344. PubMedCrossRef Bifulco, A., Bernazzani, O., Moran, P., & Jacobs, C. (2005). The childhood experience of care and abuse questionnaire (CECA.Q.): Validation in a community series. The British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 563–581. doi: 10.​1348/​014466505X35344. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss, Vol. I. Attachment. New York: Basic Books. Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss, Vol. I. Attachment. New York: Basic Books.
go back to reference Brown, J., Cohen, P., Johnson, J. G., & Smailes, E. M. (1999). Childhood abuse and neglect: Specificity and effects on adolescent and young adult depression and suicidality. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1490–1496. doi: 10.​1097/​00004583-199912000-00009. PubMedCrossRef Brown, J., Cohen, P., Johnson, J. G., & Smailes, E. M. (1999). Childhood abuse and neglect: Specificity and effects on adolescent and young adult depression and suicidality. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1490–1496. doi: 10.​1097/​00004583-199912000-00009. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Dozois, D. J. A. (2002). Cognitive organization of self-schematic content in nondysphoric, mildly dysphoric, and moderately-severely dysphoric individuals. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26(3), 417–429. doi: 10.​1023/​A:​1016037229820. CrossRef Dozois, D. J. A. (2002). Cognitive organization of self-schematic content in nondysphoric, mildly dysphoric, and moderately-severely dysphoric individuals. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26(3), 417–429. doi: 10.​1023/​A:​1016037229820. CrossRef
go back to reference Dozois, D. J. A., & Beck, A. T. (2008). Cognitive schemas, beliefs, and assumptions. In K. S. Dobson & D. J. A. Dozois (Eds.), Risk factors in depression. Oxford, England: Elsevier. Dozois, D. J. A., & Beck, A. T. (2008). Cognitive schemas, beliefs, and assumptions. In K. S. Dobson & D. J. A. Dozois (Eds.), Risk factors in depression. Oxford, England: Elsevier.
go back to reference Dozois, D. J. A., & Dobson, K. S. (2003). The structure of the self-schema in clinical depression: Differences related to episode recurrence. Cognition and Emotion, 17, 933–941. Dozois, D. J. A., & Dobson, K. S. (2003). The structure of the self-schema in clinical depression: Differences related to episode recurrence. Cognition and Emotion, 17, 933–941.
go back to reference Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Lynskey, M. T. (1996). Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: II. Psychiatric outcomes of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1365–1374. PubMed Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Lynskey, M. T. (1996). Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: II. Psychiatric outcomes of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1365–1374. PubMed
go back to reference First, M. B., & Gibbon, M. (2004). The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders (SCID-I) and the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis II disorders (SCID-II). In M. J. Hilsenroth & D. L. Segal (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychological assessment, vol. 2: Personality assessment (pp. 134–143). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. First, M. B., & Gibbon, M. (2004). The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders (SCID-I) and the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis II disorders (SCID-II). In M. J. Hilsenroth & D. L. Segal (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychological assessment, vol. 2: Personality assessment (pp. 134–143). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
go back to reference First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B. W. (1995). Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders. New York: Biometrics Research Department, New York State Psychiatric Research Institute. First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B. W. (1995). Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders. New York: Biometrics Research Department, New York State Psychiatric Research Institute.
go back to reference Gibb, B. E., & Abela, J. R. Z. (2008). Emotional abuse, verbal victimization, and the development of children’s negative inferential styles and depressive symptoms. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32(2), 161–176. doi: 10.​1007/​s10608-006-9106-x. CrossRef Gibb, B. E., & Abela, J. R. Z. (2008). Emotional abuse, verbal victimization, and the development of children’s negative inferential styles and depressive symptoms. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32(2), 161–176. doi: 10.​1007/​s10608-006-9106-x. CrossRef
go back to reference Gibb, B. E., Alloy, L. B., Abramson, L. Y., Rose, D. T., Whitehouse, W. G., Donovan, P., et al. (2001). History of childhood maltreatment, negative cognitive styles, and episodes of depression in adulthood. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25(4), 425–446. doi: 10.​1023/​A:​1005586519986. CrossRef Gibb, B. E., Alloy, L. B., Abramson, L. Y., Rose, D. T., Whitehouse, W. G., Donovan, P., et al. (2001). History of childhood maltreatment, negative cognitive styles, and episodes of depression in adulthood. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25(4), 425–446. doi: 10.​1023/​A:​1005586519986. CrossRef
go back to reference Gibb, B., Alloy, L., Abramson, L., & Marx, B. (2003). Childhood maltreatment and maltreatment-specific inferences: A test of Rose and Abramson’s (1992) extension of the hopelessness theory. Cognition and Emotion, 17, 917–931. CrossRef Gibb, B., Alloy, L., Abramson, L., & Marx, B. (2003). Childhood maltreatment and maltreatment-specific inferences: A test of Rose and Abramson’s (1992) extension of the hopelessness theory. Cognition and Emotion, 17, 917–931. CrossRef
go back to reference Harkness, K. L., & Lumley, M. N. (2008). Child abuse and neglect and the development of depression in children and adolescents. In J. Abela & B. Hankin (Eds.), Depression in children and adolescents. Guilford: New York. Harkness, K. L., & Lumley, M. N. (2008). Child abuse and neglect and the development of depression in children and adolescents. In J. Abela & B. Hankin (Eds.), Depression in children and adolescents. Guilford: New York.
go back to reference Harter, S. L., & Wanecek, S. J. (2000). Cognitive assumptions and long-term distress in survivors of childhood abuse, parental alcoholism, and dysfunctional family environments. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 24(4), 445–472. doi: 10.​1023/​A:​1005531803919. CrossRef Harter, S. L., & Wanecek, S. J. (2000). Cognitive assumptions and long-term distress in survivors of childhood abuse, parental alcoholism, and dysfunctional family environments. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 24(4), 445–472. doi: 10.​1023/​A:​1005531803919. CrossRef
go back to reference Ingram, R. E., Miranda, J., & Segal, Z. V. (1998). Cognitive vulnerability to depression. New York: Guilford Press. Ingram, R. E., Miranda, J., & Segal, Z. V. (1998). Cognitive vulnerability to depression. New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Lumley, M. N., & Harkness, K. L. (2007). Specificity in the relations among childhood adversities, early maladaptive schemas, and symptom profiles in adolescent depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 31(5), 639–657. doi: 10.​1007/​s10608-006-9100-3. CrossRef Lumley, M. N., & Harkness, K. L. (2007). Specificity in the relations among childhood adversities, early maladaptive schemas, and symptom profiles in adolescent depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 31(5), 639–657. doi: 10.​1007/​s10608-006-9100-3. CrossRef
go back to reference McGinn, L. K., Cukor, D., & Sanderson, W. C. (2005). The relationship between parenting style, cognitive style, and anxiety and depression: Does increased early adversity influence symptom severity through the mediating role of cognitive style? Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29(2), 219–242. doi: 10.​1007/​s10608-005-3166-1. CrossRef McGinn, L. K., Cukor, D., & Sanderson, W. C. (2005). The relationship between parenting style, cognitive style, and anxiety and depression: Does increased early adversity influence symptom severity through the mediating role of cognitive style? Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29(2), 219–242. doi: 10.​1007/​s10608-005-3166-1. CrossRef
go back to reference Meston, C. M., Heiman, J. R., Trapnell, P. D., & Carlin, A. S. (1999). Ethnicity, desirable responding, and self-reports of abuse: A comparison of European and Asian-ancestry undergraduates. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(3), 139–144. doi: 10.​1037/​0022-006X.​67.​1.​139. PubMedCrossRef Meston, C. M., Heiman, J. R., Trapnell, P. D., & Carlin, A. S. (1999). Ethnicity, desirable responding, and self-reports of abuse: A comparison of European and Asian-ancestry undergraduates. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(3), 139–144. doi: 10.​1037/​0022-006X.​67.​1.​139. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Parker, G., Tupling, H., & Brown, L. B. (1979). A parental bonding instrument. The British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1–10. Parker, G., Tupling, H., & Brown, L. B. (1979). A parental bonding instrument. The British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1–10.
go back to reference Preacher, K., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 717–731. Preacher, K., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 717–731.
go back to reference Segal, Z. V., Hood, J. E., Shaw, B. F., & Higgins, E. T. (1988). A structural analysis of the self-schema construct in major depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 12(5), 471–485. doi: 10.​1007/​BF01173414. CrossRef Segal, Z. V., Hood, J. E., Shaw, B. F., & Higgins, E. T. (1988). A structural analysis of the self-schema construct in major depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 12(5), 471–485. doi: 10.​1007/​BF01173414. CrossRef
go back to reference Siegel, D. J. (1999). The developing mind: Toward a neurobiology of interpersonal experience. New York: Guilford. Siegel, D. J. (1999). The developing mind: Toward a neurobiology of interpersonal experience. New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Smith, N., Lam, D., Bifulco, A., & Checkley, S. (2002). Childhood experience of care and abuse questionnaire (CECA.Q): Validation of a screening instrument for childhood adversity in clinical populations. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 37(12), 572–579. doi: 10.​1007/​s00127-002-0589-9. PubMedCrossRef Smith, N., Lam, D., Bifulco, A., & Checkley, S. (2002). Childhood experience of care and abuse questionnaire (CECA.Q): Validation of a screening instrument for childhood adversity in clinical populations. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 37(12), 572–579. doi: 10.​1007/​s00127-002-0589-9. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Stark, K. D., Sander, J., Hauser, M., Simpson, J., Schnoebelen, S., Glenn, R., et al. (2006). Depressive disorders during childhood and adolescence (pp. 336–407). In E. J. Mash & R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Treatment of Childhood Disorders (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press. Stark, K. D., Sander, J., Hauser, M., Simpson, J., Schnoebelen, S., Glenn, R., et al. (2006). Depressive disorders during childhood and adolescence (pp. 336–407). In E. J. Mash & R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Treatment of Childhood Disorders (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Young, J. E. (1994). Cognitive therapy for personality disorders: A schema-focused approach (rev. ed. ed.). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press. Young, J. E. (1994). Cognitive therapy for personality disorders: A schema-focused approach (rev. ed. ed.). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.
go back to reference Young, J., & Brown, G. (1994). Young schema questionnaire–short form. New York: Cognitive Therapy Center. Young, J., & Brown, G. (1994). Young schema questionnaire–short form. New York: Cognitive Therapy Center.
go back to reference Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. New York: Guilford Press. Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. New York: Guilford Press.
Metagegevens
Titel
Childhood Maltreatment and Depressotypic Cognitive Organization
Auteurs
Margaret N. Lumley
Kate L. Harkness
Publicatiedatum
01-10-2009
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 5/2009
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-009-9257-7