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Julie Baer and Meghan Schreck have contributed equally to this manuscript.
We examined child temperament, maternal parenting, and the effects of their interactions with each other on child social functioning. A total of 355 children aged 5–18 years old (54 % male; mean age = 10.8) were evaluated. Regression equations were used to test models of the main and interactive effects of temperament and maternal parenting behavior on the Social Problems and Social Competence Subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), a questionnaire assessing internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in children ages 4–18. Higher levels of child Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance and lower levels of Persistence were significantly associated with poorer social functioning. When accounting for child temperament, neither maternal parenting nor the interaction between maternal parenting and child temperament were significantly associated with social functioning. However, the interaction between maternal positive involvement and harm avoidance trended toward significance, such that at higher levels of harm avoidance, more extreme levels of maternal positive involvement were related to lower levels of social functioning. Further research on the interplay between child temperament and parenting across different stages of development is warranted.
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- Child Temperament, Maternal Parenting Behavior, and Child Social Functioning
Robert R. Althoff
James J. Hudziak
- Springer US