Although extensive studies demonstrate a link between infant sleep problems and parental depression, limited research explores this relation in parents of primary school aged children. Using cross-sectional data, we investigated direct, moderating and mediating risk and resistance factors in the relation between child sleep problems and parental depressive symptomatology in a sample of 145 Australian parents of primary school aged children. Parents completed the children’s sleep habits questionnaire, the short temperament scale for children, the perceived stress scale and the depression sub-scale of the depression, anxiety and stress–short form. Correlational analyses confirmed bivariate relations between parental stress and parental depressive symptomatology, and between child sleep problems and parental depressive symptomatology. Multiple regression analyses identified parental stress as a mediator of the relation between child sleep problems and parental depressive symptomatology, and the approach component of child temperament as a moderator of the relation between child sleep problems and parental depressive symptomatology. Findings suggest that parents of children with sleep problems experience increased stress levels and increased levels of depressive symptomatology and may be at increased risk of depression if their child has a difficult temperament characterized by low approachability. Implications for clinical intervention and future research are discussed.