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01-12-2018 | Research | Uitgave 1/2018 Open Access

Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 1/2018

Charcot neuroarthropathy patient education among podiatrists in Scotland: a modified Delphi approach

Journal of Foot and Ankle Research > Uitgave 1/2018
Benjamin Bullen, Matthew Young, Carla McArdle, Mairghread Ellis
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s13047-018-0296-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



This evaluation sought to determine current Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) diabetes patient education practices among Scottish National Health Service (NHS) and academic podiatrists and evaluate novel visual tools and develop expert consensus for future practice.


Questionnaires collected mixed qualitative and quantitative responses, analysed concurrently within a convergence coding matrix. Delphi methodology permitted member-checking and agreement of consensus over two rounds.


Fourteen participants (16.28%) completed a Round One questionnaire, leading to the generation of four themes; Experience; Person-Centred Care and the Content and Context of CN patient education. Seven consensus statements were subsequently developed and six achieved over 80% agreement among 16 participants (18.60%) with a Round Two questionnaire. Respondents agreed CN patient education should be considered for all ‘At-risk’ individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Verbal metaphors, including the ‘rocker-bottom’ foot, soft or brittle bones, collapsing, walking on honeycomb and a shattering lightbulb were frequently employed. Visual tools, including visual metaphors and The Charcot Foot Thermometer, were positively evaluated and made available online.


Key findings included respondent’s belief that CN education should be considered for all individuals with DPN and the frequent use of simile, analogy and metaphor in CN education. The concept of ‘remission’ proved controversial due to its potential for misinterpretation.

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Extra materiaal
Additional file 1: Appendix S1. Round One Questionnaire. Appendix S2: Initial Tree Diagram [19]. Appendix S3. Floral Arrangement. Appendix S4. Round One Results. Appendix S5. Round Two Questionnaire. (ZIP 4585 kb)
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