Skip to main content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Child Psychiatry & Human Development 1/2016

28-03-2015 | Original Article

Characteristics of Young Children with Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder: Baseline Features from the POTS Jr. Sample

Auteurs: L. C. Skriner, J. Freeman, A. Garcia, K. Benito, J. Sapyta, M. Franklin

Gepubliceerd in: Child Psychiatry & Human Development | Uitgave 1/2016

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and impairing condition that can emerge early in childhood and persist into adulthood. The primary aim of this paper is to examine the characteristics of a large sample of young children with OCD (age range from 5 to 8). The sample will be described with regard to: demographics, OCD symptoms/severity, family history and parental psychopathology, comorbidity, and global and family functioning. The sample includes 127 youth with a primary diagnosis of OCD who participated in a multi-site, randomized control clinical trial of family-based exposure with response prevention. Key findings include moderate to severe OCD symptoms, high rates of impairment, and significant comorbidity, despite the participants’ young age. Discussion focuses on how the characteristics of young children compare with older youth and with the few other samples of young children with OCD. Considerations regarding generalizability of the sample and limitations of the study are discussed.
Literatuur
1.
go back to reference Valleni-Basile LA, Garrison CZ, Jackson KL et al (1995) Frequency of obsessive–compulsive disorder in a community sample of young adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 34:128–129 PubMedCrossRef Valleni-Basile LA, Garrison CZ, Jackson KL et al (1995) Frequency of obsessive–compulsive disorder in a community sample of young adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 34:128–129 PubMedCrossRef
2.
go back to reference Swedo SE, Rapoport JL, Leonard HL, Lenane M, Cheslow D (1989) Obsessive compulsive disorders in children and adolescents: clinical phenomenology of 70 consecutive cases. Arch Gen Psychiatry 46:335–343 PubMedCrossRef Swedo SE, Rapoport JL, Leonard HL, Lenane M, Cheslow D (1989) Obsessive compulsive disorders in children and adolescents: clinical phenomenology of 70 consecutive cases. Arch Gen Psychiatry 46:335–343 PubMedCrossRef
3.
go back to reference Hanna GL (1995) Demographic and clinical features of obsessive–compulsive disorder in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 34:19–27 PubMedCrossRef Hanna GL (1995) Demographic and clinical features of obsessive–compulsive disorder in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 34:19–27 PubMedCrossRef
4.
go back to reference Masi G, Millepiedi S, Mucci M, Bertini N, Milantoni L, Arcangeli FA (2005) Naturalistic study of referred children and adolescents with obsessive–compulsive disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 44:673–681 PubMedCrossRef Masi G, Millepiedi S, Mucci M, Bertini N, Milantoni L, Arcangeli FA (2005) Naturalistic study of referred children and adolescents with obsessive–compulsive disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 44:673–681 PubMedCrossRef
5.
go back to reference Masi G, Millepiedi S, Mucci M, Bertini N, Pfanner C, Arcangeli F (2006) Cormorbidity of obsessive–compulsive disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in referred children and adolescents. Compr Psychiatry 47:42–47 PubMedCrossRef Masi G, Millepiedi S, Mucci M, Bertini N, Pfanner C, Arcangeli F (2006) Cormorbidity of obsessive–compulsive disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in referred children and adolescents. Compr Psychiatry 47:42–47 PubMedCrossRef
6.
go back to reference Pauls D, Alsobrook JP, Goodman WK, Rasmussen SA, Leckman JF (1995) A family study of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 152:76–84 PubMedCrossRef Pauls D, Alsobrook JP, Goodman WK, Rasmussen SA, Leckman JF (1995) A family study of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 152:76–84 PubMedCrossRef
7.
go back to reference Nestadt G, Samuels J, Riddle M et al (2005) A family study of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57:358–363 CrossRef Nestadt G, Samuels J, Riddle M et al (2005) A family study of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57:358–363 CrossRef
8.
go back to reference Lenane MC, Swedo SE, Leonard HL, Pauls D, Sceery W, Rapoport JL (1990) Psychiatric disorders in first degree relatives of children and adolescents with obsessive compulsive disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 29:407–412 PubMedCrossRef Lenane MC, Swedo SE, Leonard HL, Pauls D, Sceery W, Rapoport JL (1990) Psychiatric disorders in first degree relatives of children and adolescents with obsessive compulsive disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 29:407–412 PubMedCrossRef
9.
go back to reference Chabane N, Delorme R, Millet B, Mouren MC, Leboyer M, Pauls D (2005) Early-onset obsessive–compulsive disorder: a subgroup with a specific clinical and familial pattern? J Child Psychol Psychiatry 46:881–887 PubMedCrossRef Chabane N, Delorme R, Millet B, Mouren MC, Leboyer M, Pauls D (2005) Early-onset obsessive–compulsive disorder: a subgroup with a specific clinical and familial pattern? J Child Psychol Psychiatry 46:881–887 PubMedCrossRef
10.
go back to reference Leonard HL, Lenane MC, Swedo SE, Rettew DC, Gershon ES, Rapoport JL (1992) Tics and Tourette’s disorder: a 2-to 7-year follow up of 54 obsessive–compulsive children. Am J Psychiatry 149:1244–1251 PubMedCrossRef Leonard HL, Lenane MC, Swedo SE, Rettew DC, Gershon ES, Rapoport JL (1992) Tics and Tourette’s disorder: a 2-to 7-year follow up of 54 obsessive–compulsive children. Am J Psychiatry 149:1244–1251 PubMedCrossRef
11.
go back to reference Rosario-Campos MC, Leckman JF, Curi M et al (2005) A family study of early-onset obsessive compulsive disorder. Am J Genetics 136B:92–97 Rosario-Campos MC, Leckman JF, Curi M et al (2005) A family study of early-onset obsessive compulsive disorder. Am J Genetics 136B:92–97
12.
go back to reference Geller DA, Biederman J, Griffin S, Jones J, Lefkowitz TR (1996) Comorbidity of juvenile obsessive–compulsive disorder with disruptive behavior disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35:1637–1646 PubMedCrossRef Geller DA, Biederman J, Griffin S, Jones J, Lefkowitz TR (1996) Comorbidity of juvenile obsessive–compulsive disorder with disruptive behavior disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35:1637–1646 PubMedCrossRef
13.
go back to reference Geller DA, Biederman J, Jones J et al (1998) Is juvenile obsessive–compulsive disorder a developmental subtype of the disorder? A review of the pediatric literature. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 37:420–427 PubMedCrossRef Geller DA, Biederman J, Jones J et al (1998) Is juvenile obsessive–compulsive disorder a developmental subtype of the disorder? A review of the pediatric literature. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 37:420–427 PubMedCrossRef
14.
go back to reference Rettew DC, Swedo SE, Leonard HL, Lenane MC, Rapoport JL (1992) Obsessions and compulsions across time in 79 children and adolescents with obsessive–compulsive disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 31:1050–1056 PubMedCrossRef Rettew DC, Swedo SE, Leonard HL, Lenane MC, Rapoport JL (1992) Obsessions and compulsions across time in 79 children and adolescents with obsessive–compulsive disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 31:1050–1056 PubMedCrossRef
15.
go back to reference Geller DA, Biederman J, Faraone S et al (2001) Developmental aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder: findings in children, adolescents, and adults. J Nerv Ment Dis 189:471–477 PubMedCrossRef Geller DA, Biederman J, Faraone S et al (2001) Developmental aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder: findings in children, adolescents, and adults. J Nerv Ment Dis 189:471–477 PubMedCrossRef
16.
go back to reference Eischstedt JA, Arnold SL (2001) Childhood-onset obsessive–compulsive disorder: a tic-related subtype of OCD? Clin Child Fam Psych 21:137–158 Eischstedt JA, Arnold SL (2001) Childhood-onset obsessive–compulsive disorder: a tic-related subtype of OCD? Clin Child Fam Psych 21:137–158
17.
go back to reference Garcia AM, Freeman JB, Himle MB et al (2009) Phenomenology of early childhood onset obsessive compulsive disorder. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 31:104–111 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Garcia AM, Freeman JB, Himle MB et al (2009) Phenomenology of early childhood onset obsessive compulsive disorder. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 31:104–111 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
18.
go back to reference Costello EJ, Mustillo S, Erkanli A, Keeler G, Angold A (2003) Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:837–844 PubMedCrossRef Costello EJ, Mustillo S, Erkanli A, Keeler G, Angold A (2003) Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:837–844 PubMedCrossRef
19.
go back to reference Lewin AB, Park JM, Jones AM et al (2014) Family-based exposure and response prevention therapy for preschool-aged children with obsessive–compulsive disorder: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Behav Res Ther 56:30–38 PubMedCrossRef Lewin AB, Park JM, Jones AM et al (2014) Family-based exposure and response prevention therapy for preschool-aged children with obsessive–compulsive disorder: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Behav Res Ther 56:30–38 PubMedCrossRef
20.
go back to reference Selles RR, Storch EA, Lewin AB (2014) Variations in symptom prevalence and clinical correlates in younger versus older youth with obsessive–compulsive disorder. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 45:666–674 PubMedCrossRef Selles RR, Storch EA, Lewin AB (2014) Variations in symptom prevalence and clinical correlates in younger versus older youth with obsessive–compulsive disorder. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 45:666–674 PubMedCrossRef
21.
go back to reference Freeman JB, Garcia AM, Coyne L et al (2008) Early childhood OCD: preliminary findings from a family-based cognitive-behavioral approach. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47:593–602 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Freeman JB, Garcia AM, Coyne L et al (2008) Early childhood OCD: preliminary findings from a family-based cognitive-behavioral approach. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47:593–602 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
22.
go back to reference American Psychological Assocation (2007) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) American Psychological Assocation (2007) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR)
23.
go back to reference Scahill L, Riddle MA, McSwiggan-Hardin M et al (1997) Children’s Yale-Brown obsessive–Compulsive Scale: reliability and validity. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:844–852 PubMedCrossRef Scahill L, Riddle MA, McSwiggan-Hardin M et al (1997) Children’s Yale-Brown obsessive–Compulsive Scale: reliability and validity. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:844–852 PubMedCrossRef
24.
go back to reference Guy W (1976) The clinical global impression scale. The ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology- Revised (DHEW Publ No ADM 76-338) Rockville, MD, US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Public Health Service, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, Mental Health Administration, NIMH Psychopharmacology Research Branch, Division of Extramural Research Programs: 218–222 Guy W (1976) The clinical global impression scale. The ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology- Revised (DHEW Publ No ADM 76-338) Rockville, MD, US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Public Health Service, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, Mental Health Administration, NIMH Psychopharmacology Research Branch, Division of Extramural Research Programs: 218–222
25.
go back to reference March J, Leonard HL (1998) Obsessive–compulsive disorder in children and adolescents. In: Swinson RP, Antony MM, Rachman S, Richter MA (eds) Obsessive–compulsive disorder: theory, research, and treatment. The Guildford Press, New York, pp 367–394 March J, Leonard HL (1998) Obsessive–compulsive disorder in children and adolescents. In: Swinson RP, Antony MM, Rachman S, Richter MA (eds) Obsessive–compulsive disorder: theory, research, and treatment. The Guildford Press, New York, pp 367–394
26.
go back to reference Garvey MA, Perlmutter SJ, Allen AJ et al (1999) A pilot study of penicillin prophylaxis for neuropsychiatric exacerbations triggered by streptococcal infections. Biol Psychiatry 45:1564–1571 PubMedCrossRef Garvey MA, Perlmutter SJ, Allen AJ et al (1999) A pilot study of penicillin prophylaxis for neuropsychiatric exacerbations triggered by streptococcal infections. Biol Psychiatry 45:1564–1571 PubMedCrossRef
27.
go back to reference Perlmutter SJ, Leitman SF, Garvey MA et al (1999) Therapeutic plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin for obsessive–compulsive disorder and tic disorders in childhood. Lancet 354:1153–1158 PubMedCrossRef Perlmutter SJ, Leitman SF, Garvey MA et al (1999) Therapeutic plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin for obsessive–compulsive disorder and tic disorders in childhood. Lancet 354:1153–1158 PubMedCrossRef
28.
go back to reference Piacentini J, Peris TS, Bergman RL, Chang S, Jaffer M (2007) Functional impairment in childhood OCD : development and psychometrics properties of the Child Obsessive–Compulsive Impact Scale–Revised (COIS-R). J Clin Child Adolesc 36:645–653 CrossRef Piacentini J, Peris TS, Bergman RL, Chang S, Jaffer M (2007) Functional impairment in childhood OCD : development and psychometrics properties of the Child Obsessive–Compulsive Impact Scale–Revised (COIS-R). J Clin Child Adolesc 36:645–653 CrossRef
29.
go back to reference Green B, Shirk S, Hanze D, Wanstrath J (1994) The children’s global assessment scale in clinical practice: an empirical evaluation. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 33:1158–1164 PubMedCrossRef Green B, Shirk S, Hanze D, Wanstrath J (1994) The children’s global assessment scale in clinical practice: an empirical evaluation. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 33:1158–1164 PubMedCrossRef
30.
go back to reference Schaffer D, Gould MS, Brasic J, et al. (1983) A Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS). Arch Gen Psychiatry 40:1228–1231 Schaffer D, Gould MS, Brasic J, et al. (1983) A Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS). Arch Gen Psychiatry 40:1228–1231
31.
go back to reference Endicott J, Nee J, Yang R, Wohlberg C (2006) Pediatric Quality of Life Enjoyment And Satisfaction Questionnaire (PQ-LES-Q): reliability and validity. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:401–407 PubMedCrossRef Endicott J, Nee J, Yang R, Wohlberg C (2006) Pediatric Quality of Life Enjoyment And Satisfaction Questionnaire (PQ-LES-Q): reliability and validity. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:401–407 PubMedCrossRef
32.
go back to reference Sneeuw KC, Aaronson NK, Sprangers MA, Detmar SB, Wever LD, Schornagel JH (1998) Comparison of patient and proxy EORTC QLQ-C30 ratings in assessing the quality of life of cancer patients. J Clin Epidemiol 51:617–631 PubMedCrossRef Sneeuw KC, Aaronson NK, Sprangers MA, Detmar SB, Wever LD, Schornagel JH (1998) Comparison of patient and proxy EORTC QLQ-C30 ratings in assessing the quality of life of cancer patients. J Clin Epidemiol 51:617–631 PubMedCrossRef
33.
go back to reference Conners CK, March J (1996) The Conners/March Developmental Questionnaire. MultiHealth Systems Inc, Toronto Conners CK, March J (1996) The Conners/March Developmental Questionnaire. MultiHealth Systems Inc, Toronto
34.
go back to reference Chambers WJ et al (1985) The assessment of affective disorders in children and adolescents by semistructured interview: test–retest reliability of the schedule for affective disorders and Schizophrenia for school-age children, present episode version. Arch Gen Psychiatry 42:696–702 PubMedCrossRef Chambers WJ et al (1985) The assessment of affective disorders in children and adolescents by semistructured interview: test–retest reliability of the schedule for affective disorders and Schizophrenia for school-age children, present episode version. Arch Gen Psychiatry 42:696–702 PubMedCrossRef
35.
go back to reference Kaufman J, Birmaher B, Brent D, Rao U et al (1997) Schedule for affective disorders and Schizophrenia for school-age children-present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:980–988 PubMedCrossRef Kaufman J, Birmaher B, Brent D, Rao U et al (1997) Schedule for affective disorders and Schizophrenia for school-age children-present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:980–988 PubMedCrossRef
36.
go back to reference Hirshfeld-Becker DR, Biederman J (2002) Rationale and principles for early intervention with young children at risk for anxiety disorders. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 5:161–172 PubMedCrossRef Hirshfeld-Becker DR, Biederman J (2002) Rationale and principles for early intervention with young children at risk for anxiety disorders. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 5:161–172 PubMedCrossRef
37.
go back to reference Youngstrom EA, Gracious BL, Danielson CK, Findling RL, Calabrese J (2003) Toward an integration of parent and clinician report on the Young Mania Rating Scale. J Affect Disorders 77:179–190 PubMedCrossRef Youngstrom EA, Gracious BL, Danielson CK, Findling RL, Calabrese J (2003) Toward an integration of parent and clinician report on the Young Mania Rating Scale. J Affect Disorders 77:179–190 PubMedCrossRef
38.
go back to reference Leckman JF, Riddle MA, Hardin MT et al (1989) The Yale global tic severity scale: initial testing of a clinician-rated scale of tic severity. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 28:566–573 PubMedCrossRef Leckman JF, Riddle MA, Hardin MT et al (1989) The Yale global tic severity scale: initial testing of a clinician-rated scale of tic severity. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 28:566–573 PubMedCrossRef
39.
go back to reference Achenbach T, Rescorla L. (2001) Manual for ASEBA School- Age Forms & Profiles. University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth & Families, Burlington, VT Achenbach T, Rescorla L. (2001) Manual for ASEBA School- Age Forms & Profiles. University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth & Families, Burlington, VT
40.
go back to reference Achenbach T, Rescorla L (2000) Manual for ASEBA Preschool Forms & Profiles. University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth & Families, Burlington, VT Achenbach T, Rescorla L (2000) Manual for ASEBA Preschool Forms & Profiles. University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth & Families, Burlington, VT
41.
go back to reference Birmaher B, Khetarpal S, Brent D et al (1997) The screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED): scale construction and psychometric characteristics. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:545–553 PubMedCrossRef Birmaher B, Khetarpal S, Brent D et al (1997) The screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED): scale construction and psychometric characteristics. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:545–553 PubMedCrossRef
42.
go back to reference Muris P, Merckelbach H, van Brakel A, Mayer B (1999) The revised version of the screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED-R): further evidence for its reliability and validity. Anxiety Stress Coping 12:411–425 PubMedCrossRef Muris P, Merckelbach H, van Brakel A, Mayer B (1999) The revised version of the screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED-R): further evidence for its reliability and validity. Anxiety Stress Coping 12:411–425 PubMedCrossRef
43.
go back to reference Muris P, Steerneman P (2001) The revised version of the screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED–R): first evidence for its reliability and validity in a clinical sample. Brit J Clin Psychol 40:35–44 CrossRef Muris P, Steerneman P (2001) The revised version of the screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED–R): first evidence for its reliability and validity in a clinical sample. Brit J Clin Psychol 40:35–44 CrossRef
44.
go back to reference Rutter M, Bailey A, Lord C (2003) Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Western Psychological Service, Los Angeles Rutter M, Bailey A, Lord C (2003) Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Western Psychological Service, Los Angeles
45.
go back to reference Constantino JN, Gruber CP (2005) Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles Constantino JN, Gruber CP (2005) Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles
46.
go back to reference Lovibond PF, Lovibond SH (1995) The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behav Res Ther 33:335–343 PubMedCrossRef Lovibond PF, Lovibond SH (1995) The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behav Res Ther 33:335–343 PubMedCrossRef
47.
go back to reference Antony MM, Bieling PJ, Cox BJ, Enns MW, Swinson RP (1998) Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychol Assess 10:176–181 CrossRef Antony MM, Bieling PJ, Cox BJ, Enns MW, Swinson RP (1998) Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychol Assess 10:176–181 CrossRef
48.
go back to reference Brown TA, Chorpita BF, Korotitsch W, Barlow DH (1997) Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in clinical samples. Behav Res Ther 35:79–89 PubMedCrossRef Brown TA, Chorpita BF, Korotitsch W, Barlow DH (1997) Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in clinical samples. Behav Res Ther 35:79–89 PubMedCrossRef
49.
go back to reference Clara IP, Cox BJ, Enns MW (2001) Confirmatory factor analysis of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in depressed and anxious patients. J Psychopathol Behav 23:61–67 CrossRef Clara IP, Cox BJ, Enns MW (2001) Confirmatory factor analysis of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in depressed and anxious patients. J Psychopathol Behav 23:61–67 CrossRef
50.
go back to reference Foa EB, Huppert JD, Leiberg S et al (2002) The obsessive–complusive Inventory: development and validation of a short version. Psychol Assess 14:485–495 PubMedCrossRef Foa EB, Huppert JD, Leiberg S et al (2002) The obsessive–complusive Inventory: development and validation of a short version. Psychol Assess 14:485–495 PubMedCrossRef
51.
go back to reference Skinner H, Steinhauer P, Santa-Barbara J (1995) Family Assessment Measure-III (FAM-III). Multi-Health Systems, North Tonawanda Skinner H, Steinhauer P, Santa-Barbara J (1995) Family Assessment Measure-III (FAM-III). Multi-Health Systems, North Tonawanda
52.
go back to reference Pinto A, Van Noppen B, Calvocoressi L (2013) Development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of a self-rated version of the family accommodation scale for obsessive–compulsive disorder. J Obsess Compuls Rel 2:457–465 Pinto A, Van Noppen B, Calvocoressi L (2013) Development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of a self-rated version of the family accommodation scale for obsessive–compulsive disorder. J Obsess Compuls Rel 2:457–465
53.
go back to reference Farrell L, Barrett P, Piacentini J (2006) Obsessive–compulsive disorder across the developmental trajectory: clinical correlates in children, adolescents and adults. Behav Change 23:103–120 CrossRef Farrell L, Barrett P, Piacentini J (2006) Obsessive–compulsive disorder across the developmental trajectory: clinical correlates in children, adolescents and adults. Behav Change 23:103–120 CrossRef
54.
go back to reference Mancebo MC, Garcia AM, Pinto A et al (2008) Juvenile-onset OCD: clinical features in children, adolescents and adults. Acta Psychiatr Scand 118:149–159 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Mancebo MC, Garcia AM, Pinto A et al (2008) Juvenile-onset OCD: clinical features in children, adolescents and adults. Acta Psychiatr Scand 118:149–159 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
55.
go back to reference Piacentini J, Bergman RL, Chang S et al (2011) Controlled comparison of family cognitive behavioral therapy and psychoeducation/relaxation training for child obsessive–compulsive disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 50:1149–1161 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Piacentini J, Bergman RL, Chang S et al (2011) Controlled comparison of family cognitive behavioral therapy and psychoeducation/relaxation training for child obsessive–compulsive disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 50:1149–1161 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
56.
go back to reference Garcia AM, Sapyta JJ, Moore PS et al (2010) Predictors and moderators of treatment outcome in the pediatric obsessive compulsive treatment study (POTS I). J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 49:1024–1033 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Garcia AM, Sapyta JJ, Moore PS et al (2010) Predictors and moderators of treatment outcome in the pediatric obsessive compulsive treatment study (POTS I). J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 49:1024–1033 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
57.
go back to reference Freeman J, Choate-Summers M, Garcia A et al (2009) The pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder treatment study II: rationale, design and methods. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 3:4 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Freeman J, Choate-Summers M, Garcia A et al (2009) The pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder treatment study II: rationale, design and methods. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 3:4 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
58.
go back to reference Storch EA, Bussing R, Small BJ et al (2013) Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy alone or combined with sertraline in the treatment of pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder. Behav Res Ther 51:823–829 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Storch EA, Bussing R, Small BJ et al (2013) Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy alone or combined with sertraline in the treatment of pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder. Behav Res Ther 51:823–829 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
59.
go back to reference Farrell L, Waters A, Milliner E, Ollendick T (2012) Comorbidity and treatment response in pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder: a pilot study of group cognitive-behavioral treatment. Psychiat Res 199:115–123 CrossRef Farrell L, Waters A, Milliner E, Ollendick T (2012) Comorbidity and treatment response in pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder: a pilot study of group cognitive-behavioral treatment. Psychiat Res 199:115–123 CrossRef
60.
go back to reference Franklin ME, Sapyta J, Freeman JB et al (2011) Cognitive behavior therapy augmentation of pharmacotherapy in pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder: the pediatric OCD treatment study II (POTS II) randomized controlled trial. JAMA 306:1224–1232 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Franklin ME, Sapyta J, Freeman JB et al (2011) Cognitive behavior therapy augmentation of pharmacotherapy in pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder: the pediatric OCD treatment study II (POTS II) randomized controlled trial. JAMA 306:1224–1232 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
61.
go back to reference Farrell L, Barrett P (2006) Obsessive–compulsive disorder across developmental trajectory: cognitive processing of threat in children, adolescents and adults. Brit J Psychol 97:95–114 PubMedCrossRef Farrell L, Barrett P (2006) Obsessive–compulsive disorder across developmental trajectory: cognitive processing of threat in children, adolescents and adults. Brit J Psychol 97:95–114 PubMedCrossRef
62.
go back to reference Nakatani E, Krebs G, Micali N, Turner C, Heyman I, Mataix-Cols D (2011) Children with very early onset obsessive compulsive disorder: clinical features and treatment outcome. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52:1261–1268 PubMedCrossRef Nakatani E, Krebs G, Micali N, Turner C, Heyman I, Mataix-Cols D (2011) Children with very early onset obsessive compulsive disorder: clinical features and treatment outcome. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52:1261–1268 PubMedCrossRef
63.
go back to reference Storch EA, Geffken GR, Merlo LJ et al (2007) Family accommodation in peditric obsessive–compulsive disorder. J Clin Child Adolesc 36:207–216 CrossRef Storch EA, Geffken GR, Merlo LJ et al (2007) Family accommodation in peditric obsessive–compulsive disorder. J Clin Child Adolesc 36:207–216 CrossRef
64.
go back to reference Williams M, Powers M, Yun Y, Foa E (2010) Minority participation in randomized controlled trials for obsessive–compulsive disorder. J Anxiety Disord 24:171–177 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Williams M, Powers M, Yun Y, Foa E (2010) Minority participation in randomized controlled trials for obsessive–compulsive disorder. J Anxiety Disord 24:171–177 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Characteristics of Young Children with Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder: Baseline Features from the POTS Jr. Sample
Auteurs
L. C. Skriner
J. Freeman
A. Garcia
K. Benito
J. Sapyta
M. Franklin
Publicatiedatum
28-03-2015
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Child Psychiatry & Human Development / Uitgave 1/2016
Print ISSN: 0009-398X
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3327
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-015-0546-y

Andere artikelen Uitgave 1/2016

Child Psychiatry & Human Development 1/2016 Naar de uitgave