Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10608-013-9576-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Multiple studies have found that cognitive bias modification (CBM) can be an effective intervention to reduce maladaptive, anxiety-linked cognitive biases and symptoms, but little is known about how it achieves its effects. CBM is posited to work by altering contingency learning about potential threat cues, rather than via habituation of fear and arousal (as hypothesized for exposure-based interventions). In the current study, multi-level modeling was used to examine the trajectories of potential change processes over the course of CBM for interpretation bias in a sample high in obsessive–compulsive (OC) symptoms (n = 75). Psychophysiological arousal (heart rate and galvanic skin response), subjective fear, and the development of a learned contingency between ambiguity tied to threat and safe outcomes were measured before, during, and after CBM. Results showed that, compared to a control group, CBM was effective at reducing OC beliefs (though not responses to subsequent OC stressors). Additionally, as expected, only contingency learning significantly changed as a function of training condition, while subjective fear and arousal did not. Moreover, post-training indicators of contingency learning predicted the extent OC beliefs changed from pre- to post-training for the “positive” CBM group only (and not for the control group). This indicates that CBM is likely not operating similarly to habituation, but is instead marked by change in cognitive processing. However, change in contingency learning did not fully mediate the effect of this intervention on change in OC beliefs, suggesting more work is needed to fully understand the mechanisms underlying CBM.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Supplementary material (DOCX 17 kb)10608_2013_9576_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Alloy, L. B., Abramson, L. Y., Whitehouse, W. G., Hogan, M. E., Tashman, N. A., Steinberg, D. L., et al. (1999). Depressogenic cognitive styles: Predictive validity, information processing and personality characteristics, and developmental origins. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 503–531. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(98)00157-0. CrossRef
Aronson, E., Ellsworth, P. C., Carlsmith, J. M., & Gonzales, M. H. (1990). Methods of research in social psychology (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (1990). A new theory of disuse and an old theory of stimulus fluctuation. In A. Healy & R. Shiffrin (Eds.), From learning processes to cognitive processes: Essays in honor of William K. Estes (2nd ed., pp. 35–67). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cacioppo, J. T., Tassinaru, L. G., & Berntson, G. G. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of psychophysiology (3rd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Craske, M. G., & Mystkowski, J. L. (2006). Exposure therapy and extinction: Clinical studies. In M. G. Craske, D. Hermans, & D. Vansteenwegen (Eds.), Fear and learning: From basic processes to clinical implications (pp. 217–233). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
Emmelkamp, P. M., van Oppen, P., & Van Balkom, A. J. L. M. (2002). Cognitive changes in patients with obsessive compulsive rituals treated with exposure in vivo and response prevention. In R. O. Frost & G. Steketee (Eds.), Cognitive approaches to obsessions and compulsions: Theory, assessment, and treatment (pp. 391–401). Oxford: Elsevier Science. CrossRef
Figner, B., & Murphy, R. O. (2011). Using skin conductance in judgment and decision making research. In M. Schulte-Mecklenbeck, A. Kuehberger, & R. Ranyard (Eds.), A handbook of process tracing methods for decision research. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Foa, E. B., Huppert, J. D., & Cahill, S. P. (2006). Emotional processing theory: An update. In B. O. Rothbaum (Ed.), Pathological anxiety: Emotional processing in etiology and treatment (pp. 3–24). New York: Guilford Press.
Holmes, E. A., Lang, T. J., & Shah, D. M. (2009). Developing interpretation bias modification as a “cognitive vaccine” for depressed mood: Imagining positive events makes you feel better than thinking about them verbally. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118(1), 76–88. doi: 10.1037/a0012590. PubMedCrossRef
Maas, C. J., & Hox, J. J. (2005). Sufficient sample sizes for multilevel modeling. Methodology, 1(3), 86–92. doi: 10.1027/1614-18188.8.131.52.
McArdle, J. J., Johnson, R. C., Hishinuma, E. S., Miyamoto, R. H., & Andrade, N. N. (2001). Structural equation modeling of group differences in CES-D ratings of native Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian high school students. Journal of Adolescent Research, 16, 108–149. doi: 10.1177/0743558401162002. CrossRef
Muris, P., Huijding, J., Mayer, B., Remmerswaal, D., & Vreden, S. (2009). Ground control to major tom: Experimental manipulation of anxiety-related interpretation bias by means of the “space odyssey” paradigm and effects on avoidance tendencies in children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23(3), 333–340. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2009.01.004. PubMedCrossRef
Najmi, S., & Amir, N. (2010). The effect of attention training on a behavioral test of contamination fears in individuals with subclinical obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 136–142.
Narayana, K. V. L., & Bhujanga Rao, D. R. A. (2011). Noise removal using adaptive noise canceling, analysis of ECG using Matlab. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 3, 2839–2844.
Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group. (2005). Psychometric validation of the obsessive belief questionnaire and interpretation of intrusions inventory—Part 2: Factor analyses and testing of a brief version. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 1527–1542. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2004.07.010. CrossRef
Rachman, S. (1983). Obstacles to the successful treatment of obsessions. In E. B. Foa & P. Emmelkamp (Eds.), Failures in behavior therapy (pp. 35–57). New York: Wiley.
Singer, J. D., & Willett, J. B. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis: Modeling change and event occurrence. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Sookman, D., & Pinard, G. (1999). Integrative cognitive therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A focus on multiple schemas. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 6, 351–362. CrossRef
Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., Lushene, R., Vagg, P. R., & Jacobs, G. A. (1983). Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory (Form Y). Palo Alto, CA: Mind Garden.
Teachman, B. A., Beadel, J. R., & Steinman, S. A. (in press). Mechanisms of change in CBT treatment of anxiety disorders. In P. M. G. Emmelkamp and T. Ehlring (Eds.), International Handbook of Anxiety Disorders: Theory, Research, and Practice, Volume II. Wiley-Blackwell.
Venables, P. H., & Christie, M. J. (1980). The effects of age, sex, and time of testing on skin conductance activity. In I. Martin & P. H. Venables (Eds.), Techniques in Psychophysiology (pp. 3–67). Chichester: Wiley.
- Change Processes During Cognitive Bias Modification for Obsessive Compulsive Beliefs
Jessica R. Beadel
Frederick L. Smyth
Bethany A. Teachman
- Springer US