Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

30-09-2021 | ORIGINAL PAPER

Change in Self-compassion, Psychological Inflexibility, and Interpersonal Courage in Intensive PTSD Treatment: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

Auteurs: Peter P. Grau, Timothy P. Melchert, Mauricio Garnier-Villarreal, Lynne M. Knobloch-Fedders, Chad T. Wetterneck

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness | Uitgave 12/2021

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Objectives

Despite numerous advances in the understanding of the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), current research is often narrowly focused on symptom reduction. Despite this, the impact of PTSD also extends into areas such as interpersonal relationships, pursuit of valued activities, and self-acceptance. These processes appear to be especially relevant in chronic/complex PTSD but are rarely represented in controlled trials. As a result, there is a need to expand the focus of PTSD research beyond symptom reduction to include processes of well-being.

Methods

Using a latent growth curve analytical approach, this study examined the impact of change in self-compassion, psychological inflexibility, and interpersonal courage on PTSD symptom reduction, trauma-related shame, quality of life, and valued living for participants in an exposure-based PTSD partial hospitalization program (n = 537; 75% White; 83% female; mean age = 36).

Results

All key processes assessed except for interpersonal courage showed clinically meaningful change over the course of the program. For the PTSD and valued living three-piece spline model slopes, only the three self-compassion slopes were significant predictors (p < .001). The psychological inflexibility slope predicted the quality of life slope (p < .001), while the interpersonal courage slope predicted the trauma-related shame slope (p < .001).

Conclusions

Results supported the importance of broadening the focus of PTSD conceptualization, treatment, and outcome assessment to include processes such as psychological inflexibility, self-compassion, and interpersonal courage.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Literatuur
go back to reference Barlow, D. H. (2014). Clinical handbook of psychological disorders: A step-by-step treatment manual. Guilford. Barlow, D. H. (2014). Clinical handbook of psychological disorders: A step-by-step treatment manual. Guilford.
go back to reference Benjet, C., Bromet, E., Karam, E. G., Kessler, R. C., McLaughlin, K. A., Ruscio, A. M., Shahly, V., Stein, D. J., Petukhova, M., Alonso, J., & Alonso, J. (2016). The epidemiology of traumatic event exposure worldwide: Results from the World Mental Health Survey Consortium. Psychological Medicine, 46(2), 327–343.CrossRef Benjet, C., Bromet, E., Karam, E. G., Kessler, R. C., McLaughlin, K. A., Ruscio, A. M., Shahly, V., Stein, D. J., Petukhova, M., Alonso, J., & Alonso, J. (2016). The epidemiology of traumatic event exposure worldwide: Results from the World Mental Health Survey Consortium. Psychological Medicine, 46(2), 327–343.CrossRef
go back to reference Bluett, E. J. (2018). Effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder and moral injury. In Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering (Vol. 78, Issue 9-B(E)). Bluett, E. J. (2018). Effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder and moral injury. In Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering (Vol. 78, Issue 9-B(E)).
go back to reference Cusack, K., Jonas, D. E., Forneris, C. A., Wines, C., Sonis, J., Middleton, J. C., Feltner, C., Brownley, K. A., Olmsted, K. R., Greenblatt, A., & Weil, A. (2016). Psychological treatments for adults with posttraumatic stress disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 43, 128–141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2015.10.003CrossRefPubMed Cusack, K., Jonas, D. E., Forneris, C. A., Wines, C., Sonis, J., Middleton, J. C., Feltner, C., Brownley, K. A., Olmsted, K. R., Greenblatt, A., & Weil, A. (2016). Psychological treatments for adults with posttraumatic stress disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 43, 128–141. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​cpr.​2015.​10.​003CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Dahm, K. A., Meyer, E. C., Neff, K. D., Kimbrel, N. A., Gulliver, S. B., & Morissette, S. B. (2015). Mindfulness, self-compassion, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and functional disability in U.S. Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans: Self-compassion and mindfulness in U.S. war veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 28(5), 460–464. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22045 Dahm, K. A., Meyer, E. C., Neff, K. D., Kimbrel, N. A., Gulliver, S. B., & Morissette, S. B. (2015). Mindfulness, self-compassion, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and functional disability in U.S. Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans: Self-compassion and mindfulness in U.S. war veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 28(5), 460–464. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1002/​jts.​22045
go back to reference DeCou, C. R., Mahoney, C. T., Kaplan, S. P., & Lynch, S. M. (2019). Coping self-efficacy and trauma-related shame mediate the association between negative social reactions to sexual assault and PTSD symptoms. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 11(1), 51.CrossRef DeCou, C. R., Mahoney, C. T., Kaplan, S. P., & Lynch, S. M. (2019). Coping self-efficacy and trauma-related shame mediate the association between negative social reactions to sexual assault and PTSD symptoms. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 11(1), 51.CrossRef
go back to reference Doane, L. S., Feeny, N. C., & Zoellner, L. A. (2010). A preliminary investigation of sudden gains in exposure therapy for PTSD. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(6), 555–560. Doane, L. S., Feeny, N. C., & Zoellner, L. A. (2010). A preliminary investigation of sudden gains in exposure therapy for PTSD. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(6), 555–560.
go back to reference Donahue, J. J., Huggins, J., & Marrow, T. (2017). Posttraumatic stress symptom severity and functional impairment in a trauma-exposed sample: A preliminary examination into the moderating role of valued living. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 6(1), 13–20.CrossRef Donahue, J. J., Huggins, J., & Marrow, T. (2017). Posttraumatic stress symptom severity and functional impairment in a trauma-exposed sample: A preliminary examination into the moderating role of valued living. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 6(1), 13–20.CrossRef
go back to reference Earley, M. D., Chesney, M. A., Frye, J., Greene, P. A., Berman, B., & Kimbrough, E. (2014). Mindfulness intervention for child abuse survivors: A 2.5‐year follow‐up. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70(10), 933–941. Earley, M. D., Chesney, M. A., Frye, J., Greene, P. A., Berman, B., & Kimbrough, E. (2014). Mindfulness intervention for child abuse survivors: A 2.5‐year follow‐up. Journal of Clinical Psychology70(10), 933–941.
go back to reference Enders, C. K. (2010). Applied missing data analysis. Guilford Press. Enders, C. K. (2010). Applied missing data analysis. Guilford Press.
go back to reference Endicott, J., Nee, J., Harrison, W., & Blumenthal, R. (1993). Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire: A new measure. Psychopharmacology Bulletin., 29(2), 321–326.PubMed Endicott, J., Nee, J., Harrison, W., & Blumenthal, R. (1993). Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire: A new measure. Psychopharmacology Bulletin., 29(2), 321–326.PubMed
go back to reference Fan, X., & Sivo, S. A. (2007). Sensitivity of fit indices to model misspecification and model types. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42(3), 509–529.CrossRef Fan, X., & Sivo, S. A. (2007). Sensitivity of fit indices to model misspecification and model types. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42(3), 509–529.CrossRef
go back to reference Follette, V., Palm, K. M., & Pearson, A. N. (2006). Mindfulness and trauma: Implications for treatment. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 24(1), 45–61.CrossRef Follette, V., Palm, K. M., & Pearson, A. N. (2006). Mindfulness and trauma: Implications for treatment. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 24(1), 45–61.CrossRef
go back to reference Gilbert, P. (2010). The compassionate mind: A new approach to life’s challenges. New Harbinger Publications. Gilbert, P. (2010). The compassionate mind: A new approach to life’s challenges. New Harbinger Publications.
go back to reference Gratz, K. L., & Tull, M. T. (2010). Emotion regulation as a mechanism of change in acceptance-and mindfulness-based treatments. Assessing mindfulness and acceptance processes in clients: Illuminating the theory and practice of change, 107–133. Gratz, K. L., & Tull, M. T. (2010). Emotion regulation as a mechanism of change in acceptance-and mindfulness-based treatments. Assessing mindfulness and acceptance processes in clients: Illuminating the theory and practice of change, 107–133.
go back to reference Grimm, K. J., Ram, N., & Estabrook, R. (2016). Growth modeling: Structural equation and multilevel modeling approaches. Guilford Publications. Grimm, K. J., Ram, N., & Estabrook, R. (2016). Growth modeling: Structural equation and multilevel modeling approaches. Guilford Publications.
go back to reference Hayes, S. C. (2019). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Towards a unified model of behavior change. World Psychiatry, 18(2), 226.CrossRef Hayes, S. C. (2019). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Towards a unified model of behavior change. World Psychiatry, 18(2), 226.CrossRef
go back to reference Hayes, S. C., & Hofmann, S. G. (2018). Process-based CBT: The science and core clinical competencies of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. New Harbinger Publications. Hayes, S. C., & Hofmann, S. G. (2018). Process-based CBT: The science and core clinical competencies of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. New Harbinger Publications.
go back to reference Jordan, J. V. (1990). Courage in connection: Conflict, compassion, creativity. Stone Center for Developmental Services and Studies, Wellesley College. Jordan, J. V. (1990). Courage in connection: Conflict, compassion, creativity. Stone Center for Developmental Services and Studies, Wellesley College.
go back to reference Kearney, D. J., McDermott, K., Malte, C., Martinez, M., & Simpson, T. L. (2012). Association of participation in a mindfulness program with measures of PTSD, depression and quality of life in a veteran sample. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68(1), 101–116.CrossRef Kearney, D. J., McDermott, K., Malte, C., Martinez, M., & Simpson, T. L. (2012). Association of participation in a mindfulness program with measures of PTSD, depression and quality of life in a veteran sample. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68(1), 101–116.CrossRef
go back to reference Kohlenberg, R. J., Tsai, M., Kuczynski, A. M., Rae, J. R., Lagbas, E., Lo, J., & Kanter, J. W. (2015). A brief, interpersonally oriented mindfulness intervention incorporating Functional Analytic Psychotherapy׳ s model of awareness, courage and love. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 4(2), 107–111.CrossRef Kohlenberg, R. J., Tsai, M., Kuczynski, A. M., Rae, J. R., Lagbas, E., Lo, J., & Kanter, J. W. (2015). A brief, interpersonally oriented mindfulness intervention incorporating Functional Analytic Psychotherapy׳ s model of awareness, courage and love. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 4(2), 107–111.CrossRef
go back to reference Kuczynski, A., Kanter, J., Wetterneck, C. T., Olaz, F., Singh, R. S., Lee, E. B., Stowe, T. J., Mazzucchelli, T. G., Mier-Chairez, J., Maitland, D. W., Manbeck, K. E., & Corey, M. (2020). Measuring intimacy as a contextual behavioral process: Psychometric Development and Evaluation of the Awareness, Courage, and Responsiveness Scale. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 16, 199–208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2019.02.004CrossRef Kuczynski, A., Kanter, J., Wetterneck, C. T., Olaz, F., Singh, R. S., Lee, E. B., Stowe, T. J., Mazzucchelli, T. G., Mier-Chairez, J., Maitland, D. W., Manbeck, K. E., & Corey, M. (2020). Measuring intimacy as a contextual behavioral process: Psychometric Development and Evaluation of the Awareness, Courage, and Responsiveness Scale. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 16, 199–208. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​jcbs.​2019.​02.​004CrossRef
go back to reference Lee, D. A., Scragg, P., & Turner, S. (2001). The role of shame and guilt in traumatic events: A clinical model of shame-based and guilt-based PTSD. British Journal of Medical Psychology; Leicester, 74, 451–466. Lee, D. A., Scragg, P., & Turner, S. (2001). The role of shame and guilt in traumatic events: A clinical model of shame-based and guilt-based PTSD. British Journal of Medical Psychology; Leicester, 74, 451–466.
go back to reference Levin, M. E., Hildebrandt, M. J., Lillis, J., & Hayes, S. C. (2012). The impact of treatment components suggested by the psychological flexibility model: A meta-analysis of laboratory-based component studies. Behavior Therapy, 43(4), 741–756.CrossRef Levin, M. E., Hildebrandt, M. J., Lillis, J., & Hayes, S. C. (2012). The impact of treatment components suggested by the psychological flexibility model: A meta-analysis of laboratory-based component studies. Behavior Therapy, 43(4), 741–756.CrossRef
go back to reference Little, T. D. (2013). Longitudinal structural equation modeling. Guilford press. Little, T. D. (2013). Longitudinal structural equation modeling. Guilford press.
go back to reference Mak, W. W., & Cheung, R. Y. (2010). Self-stigma among concealable minorities in Hong Kong: Conceptualization and unified measurement. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80(2), 267.CrossRef Mak, W. W., & Cheung, R. Y. (2010). Self-stigma among concealable minorities in Hong Kong: Conceptualization and unified measurement. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80(2), 267.CrossRef
go back to reference Mak, W. W., Chio, F. H., Chong, K. S., & Law, R. W. (2021). From mindfulness to personal recovery: The mediating roles of self-warmth, psychological flexibility, and valued living. Mindfulness, 12(4), 994–1001.CrossRef Mak, W. W., Chio, F. H., Chong, K. S., & Law, R. W. (2021). From mindfulness to personal recovery: The mediating roles of self-warmth, psychological flexibility, and valued living. Mindfulness, 12(4), 994–1001.CrossRef
go back to reference Markowitz, J. C., Petkova, E., Neria, Y., Van Meter, P. E., Zhao, Y., Hembree, E., Lovell, K., Biyanova, T., & Marshall, R. D. (2015). Is exposure necessary? A randomized clinical trial of interpersonal psychotherapy for PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(5), 430–440.CrossRef Markowitz, J. C., Petkova, E., Neria, Y., Van Meter, P. E., Zhao, Y., Hembree, E., Lovell, K., Biyanova, T., & Marshall, R. D. (2015). Is exposure necessary? A randomized clinical trial of interpersonal psychotherapy for PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(5), 430–440.CrossRef
go back to reference Marsh, H. W., Hau, K., & Wen. . (2004). In search of golden rules: Comment on hypothesis-testing approaches to setting cutoff values for fit indexes and dangers in overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler’s (1999) findings. Structural Equation Modeling, 11(3), 320–341.CrossRef Marsh, H. W., Hau, K., & Wen. . (2004). In search of golden rules: Comment on hypothesis-testing approaches to setting cutoff values for fit indexes and dangers in overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler’s (1999) findings. Structural Equation Modeling, 11(3), 320–341.CrossRef
go back to reference McGuigan, H. A. (2013). PTSD And depression in military members and recommendations for program evaluation of evidence-based practice (Doctoral dissertation). The University of Arizona. McGuigan, H. A. (2013). PTSD And depression in military members and recommendations for program evaluation of evidence-based practice (Doctoral dissertation). The University of Arizona.
go back to reference Neff, K. D., & Dahm, K. A. (2015). Self-compassion: What it is, what it does, and how it relates to mindfulness. In B. D. Ostafin, M. D. Robinson, & B. P. Meier (Eds.), Handbook of mindfulness and self-regulation (pp. 121–137). New York: Springer. Neff, K. D., & Dahm, K. A. (2015). Self-compassion: What it is, what it does, and how it relates to mindfulness. In B. D. Ostafin, M. D. Robinson, & B. P. Meier (Eds.), Handbook of mindfulness and self-regulation (pp. 121–137). New York: Springer.
go back to reference Øktedalen, T., Hagtvet, K. A., Hoffart, A., Langkaas, T. F., & Smucker, M. (2014). The Trauma-related Shame Inventory: Measuring trauma-related shame among patients with PTSD. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 36, 600–615. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-014-9422-5 Øktedalen, T., Hagtvet, K. A., Hoffart, A., Langkaas, T. F., & Smucker, M. (2014). The Trauma-related Shame Inventory: Measuring trauma-related shame among patients with PTSD. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 36, 600–615. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s10862-014-9422-5
go back to reference Peters, G. J. Y. (2014). The alpha and the omega of scale reliability and validity: Why and how to abandon Cronbach’s alpha and the route towards more comprehensive assessment of scale quality. European Health Psychologist, 16, 56–69. Peters, G. J. Y. (2014). The alpha and the omega of scale reliability and validity: Why and how to abandon Cronbach’s alpha and the route towards more comprehensive assessment of scale quality. European Health Psychologist, 16, 56–69.
go back to reference Prescott, D. S., Maeschalck, C. L., & Miller, S. D. (2017). Feedback-informed treatment in clinical practice: Reaching for excellence. American Psychological Association. Prescott, D. S., Maeschalck, C. L., & Miller, S. D. (2017). Feedback-informed treatment in clinical practice: Reaching for excellence. American Psychological Association.
go back to reference Richardson, J. D., Contractor, A. A., Armour, C., Cyr, K. S., Elhai, J. D., & Sareen, J. (2014). Predictors of long-term treatment outcome in combat and peacekeeping veterans with military-related PTSD. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 75(11), 1299–1305.CrossRef Richardson, J. D., Contractor, A. A., Armour, C., Cyr, K. S., Elhai, J. D., & Sareen, J. (2014). Predictors of long-term treatment outcome in combat and peacekeeping veterans with military-related PTSD. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 75(11), 1299–1305.CrossRef
go back to reference Riendeau, R. P., Sullivan, J. L., Meterko, M., Stolzmann, K., Williamson, A. K., Miller, C. J., Kim, B., & Bauer, M. S. (2018). Factor structure of the Q-LES-Q short form in an enrolled mental health clinic population. Quality of Life Research, 27(11), 2953–2964.CrossRef Riendeau, R. P., Sullivan, J. L., Meterko, M., Stolzmann, K., Williamson, A. K., Miller, C. J., Kim, B., & Bauer, M. S. (2018). Factor structure of the Q-LES-Q short form in an enrolled mental health clinic population. Quality of Life Research, 27(11), 2953–2964.CrossRef
go back to reference Rhodes, A., Spinazzola, J., & van der Kolk, B. (2016). Yoga for adult women with chronic PTSD: A long-term follow-up study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 22(3), 189–196.CrossRef Rhodes, A., Spinazzola, J., & van der Kolk, B. (2016). Yoga for adult women with chronic PTSD: A long-term follow-up study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 22(3), 189–196.CrossRef
go back to reference Roush, J. F., Cukrowicz, K. C., Mitchell, S. M., Brown, S. L., & Seymour, N. E. (2018). Valued living, life fulfillment, and suicide ideation among psychiatric inpatients: The mediating role of thwarted interpersonal needs. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 7, 8–14.CrossRef Roush, J. F., Cukrowicz, K. C., Mitchell, S. M., Brown, S. L., & Seymour, N. E. (2018). Valued living, life fulfillment, and suicide ideation among psychiatric inpatients: The mediating role of thwarted interpersonal needs. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 7, 8–14.CrossRef
go back to reference Schoenleber, M., & Gratz, K. L. (2018). Self-acceptance group therapy: A transdiagnostic, cognitive-behavioral treatment for shame. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 25(1), 75–86. Schoenleber, M., & Gratz, K. L. (2018). Self-acceptance group therapy: A transdiagnostic, cognitive-behavioral treatment for shame. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 25(1), 75–86.
go back to reference Schnurr, P. P., & Lunney, C. A. (2016). Symptom benchmarks of improved quality of life in PTSD. Depression and Anxiety, 33(3), 247–255. Schnurr, P. P., & Lunney, C. A. (2016). Symptom benchmarks of improved quality of life in PTSD. Depression and Anxiety, 33(3), 247–255.
go back to reference Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 373–386.CrossRef Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 373–386.CrossRef
go back to reference Sheehan, D. V., Lecrubier, Y., Sheehan, K. H., Amorim, P., Janavs, J., Weiller, E., Hergueta, T., Baker, R., & Dunbar, G. C. (1998). The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI): The development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59(20), 22–33. Sheehan, D. V., Lecrubier, Y., Sheehan, K. H., Amorim, P., Janavs, J., Weiller, E., Hergueta, T., Baker, R., & Dunbar, G. C. (1998). The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI): The development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59(20), 22–33.
go back to reference Sijtsma, K. (2009). On the use, the misuse, and the very limited usefulness of Cronbach’s alpha. Psychometrika, 74(1), 107.CrossRef Sijtsma, K. (2009). On the use, the misuse, and the very limited usefulness of Cronbach’s alpha. Psychometrika, 74(1), 107.CrossRef
go back to reference Slade, E. P., Gottlieb, J. D., Lu, W., Yanos, P. T., Rosenberg, S., Silverstein, S. M., Minsky, S. K., & Mueser, K. T. (2017). Cost-effectiveness of a PTSD intervention tailored for individuals with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 68(12), 1225–1231.CrossRef Slade, E. P., Gottlieb, J. D., Lu, W., Yanos, P. T., Rosenberg, S., Silverstein, S. M., Minsky, S. K., & Mueser, K. T. (2017). Cost-effectiveness of a PTSD intervention tailored for individuals with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 68(12), 1225–1231.CrossRef
go back to reference van der Kolk, B. (2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder and the nature of trauma. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 2(1), 7.CrossRef van der Kolk, B. (2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder and the nature of trauma. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 2(1), 7.CrossRef
go back to reference Weathers, F.W., Blake, D.D., Schnurr, P.P., Kaloupek, D.G., Marx, B.P., & Keane, T.M. (2013). The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5). [Assessment] Available from www.ptsd.va.gov. Weathers, F.W., Blake, D.D., Schnurr, P.P., Kaloupek, D.G., Marx, B.P., & Keane, T.M. (2013). The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5). [Assessment] Available from www.​ptsd.​va.​gov.
go back to reference Weathers, F. W., Blake, D. D., Schnurr, P. P., Kaloupek, D. G., Marx, B. P., & Keane, T. M. (2013). The Life Events Checklist for DSM-5 (LEC-5). Instrument available from the National Center for PTSD at www.ptsd.va.gov Weathers, F. W., Blake, D. D., Schnurr, P. P., Kaloupek, D. G., Marx, B. P., & Keane, T. M. (2013). The Life Events Checklist for DSM-5 (LEC-5). Instrument available from the National Center for PTSD at www.​ptsd.​va.​gov
go back to reference Weathers, F. W., Litz, B. T., Keane, T. M., Palmieri, P. A., Marx, B. P., & Schnurr, P. P. (2013). The PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Scale available from the National Center for PTSD at www.ptsd.va.gov. Weathers, F. W., Litz, B. T., Keane, T. M., Palmieri, P. A., Marx, B. P., & Schnurr, P. P. (2013). The PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Scale available from the National Center for PTSD at www.​ptsd.​va.​gov.
go back to reference Wilson, K. G., Sandoz, E. K., Kitchens, J., & Roberts, M. E. (2010). The Valued Living Questionnaire: Defining and measuring valued action within a behavioral framework. The Psychological Record, 60, 249–272.CrossRef Wilson, K. G., Sandoz, E. K., Kitchens, J., & Roberts, M. E. (2010). The Valued Living Questionnaire: Defining and measuring valued action within a behavioral framework. The Psychological Record, 60, 249–272.CrossRef
go back to reference Yehuda, R., Hoge, C. W., McFarlane, A. C., Vermetten, E., Lanius, R. A., Nievergelt, C. M., Hobfoll, S. E., Koenen, K. C., Neylan, T. C., & Hyman, S. E. (2015). Post-traumatic stress disorder. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 15057. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrdp.2015.57 Yehuda, R., Hoge, C. W., McFarlane, A. C., Vermetten, E., Lanius, R. A., Nievergelt, C. M., Hobfoll, S. E., Koenen, K. C., Neylan, T. C., & Hyman, S. E. (2015). Post-traumatic stress disorder. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 15057. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1038/​nrdp.​2015.​57
go back to reference Zalta, A. K., Held, P., Smith, D. L., Klassen, B. J., Lofgreen, A. M., Normand, P. S., Brenna, M. B., Rydberg, T. S., Boley, R. A., Pollack, M. H., & Karnik, N. S. (2018). Evaluating patterns and predictors of symptom change during a three-week intensive outpatient treatment for veterans with PTSD. BMC Psychiatry, 18(1), 1–15.CrossRef Zalta, A. K., Held, P., Smith, D. L., Klassen, B. J., Lofgreen, A. M., Normand, P. S., Brenna, M. B., Rydberg, T. S., Boley, R. A., Pollack, M. H., & Karnik, N. S. (2018). Evaluating patterns and predictors of symptom change during a three-week intensive outpatient treatment for veterans with PTSD. BMC Psychiatry, 18(1), 1–15.CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Change in Self-compassion, Psychological Inflexibility, and Interpersonal Courage in Intensive PTSD Treatment: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis
Auteurs
Peter P. Grau
Timothy P. Melchert
Mauricio Garnier-Villarreal
Lynne M. Knobloch-Fedders
Chad T. Wetterneck
Publicatiedatum
30-09-2021
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Mindfulness / Uitgave 12/2021
Print ISSN: 1868-8527
Elektronisch ISSN: 1868-8535
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-021-01759-6

Andere artikelen Uitgave 12/2021

Mindfulness 12/2021 Naar de uitgave