Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 8/2012

01-08-2012 | Original Paper

Category Formation in Autism: Can Individuals with Autism Form Categories and Prototypes of Dot Patterns?

Auteurs: Holly Zajac Gastgeb, Eva M. Dundas, Nancy J. Minshew, Mark S. Strauss

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 8/2012

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

There is a growing amount of evidence suggesting that individuals with autism have difficulty with categorization. One basic cognitive ability that may underlie this difficulty is the ability to abstract a prototype. The current study examined prototype and category formation with dot patterns in high-functioning adults with autism and matched controls. Individuals with autism were found to have difficulty forming prototypes and categories of dot patterns. The eye-tracking data did not reveal any between group differences in attention to the dot patterns. However, relationships between performance and intelligence in the autism group suggest possible processing differences between the groups. Results are consistent with previous studies that have found deficits in prototype formation and extend these deficits to dot patterns.
Literatuur
go back to reference Bott, L., Brock, J., Brockdorff, N., Boucher, J., & Lamberts, K. (2006). Perceptual similarity in autism. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 39, 1–18. Bott, L., Brock, J., Brockdorff, N., Boucher, J., & Lamberts, K. (2006). Perceptual similarity in autism. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 39, 1–18.
go back to reference Eigsti, I., & Mayo, J. (2011). Implicit learning in ASD. In D. A. Fein (Ed.), The neuropsychology of autism. New York: Oxford Press. Eigsti, I., & Mayo, J. (2011). Implicit learning in ASD. In D. A. Fein (Ed.), The neuropsychology of autism. New York: Oxford Press.
go back to reference Gadow, K., Sprafkin, J., & Weiss, M. (1999). Adult symptom inventory-4. Stony Brook, NY: Checkmate Plus. Gadow, K., Sprafkin, J., & Weiss, M. (1999). Adult symptom inventory-4. Stony Brook, NY: Checkmate Plus.
go back to reference Gastgeb, H. Z., Strauss, M. S., & Minshew, N. J. (2006). Do individuals with autism process categories differently: The effect of typicality and development. Child Development, 77, 1717–1729. PubMedCrossRef Gastgeb, H. Z., Strauss, M. S., & Minshew, N. J. (2006). Do individuals with autism process categories differently: The effect of typicality and development. Child Development, 77, 1717–1729. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gastgeb, H. Z., Rump, K. M., Best, C. A., Minshew, N. J., & Strauss, M. S. (2009). Prototype formation: Can individuals with autism abstract facial prototypes? Autism Research, 2, 279–284. PubMedCrossRef Gastgeb, H. Z., Rump, K. M., Best, C. A., Minshew, N. J., & Strauss, M. S. (2009). Prototype formation: Can individuals with autism abstract facial prototypes? Autism Research, 2, 279–284. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gastgeb, H. Z., Wilkinson, D. A., Minshew, N. J., & Strauss, M. S. (2011). Can individuals with autism abstract prototypes of natural faces? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 1609–1618. PubMedCrossRef Gastgeb, H. Z., Wilkinson, D. A., Minshew, N. J., & Strauss, M. S. (2011). Can individuals with autism abstract prototypes of natural faces? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 1609–1618. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Homa, D., Goldhart, B., Burruel-Homa, L., & Smith, J. C. (1993). Influence of manipulated category knowledge on prototype classification and recognition. Memory and Cognition, 21, 529–538. CrossRef Homa, D., Goldhart, B., Burruel-Homa, L., & Smith, J. C. (1993). Influence of manipulated category knowledge on prototype classification and recognition. Memory and Cognition, 21, 529–538. CrossRef
go back to reference Kéri, S., Kálmán, J., Kelemen, O., Benedek, G., & Janka, Z. (2001). Are Alzheimer’s disease patients able to learn visual prototypes? Neuropsychologia, 39, 1218–1223. PubMedCrossRef Kéri, S., Kálmán, J., Kelemen, O., Benedek, G., & Janka, Z. (2001). Are Alzheimer’s disease patients able to learn visual prototypes? Neuropsychologia, 39, 1218–1223. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Klinger, L. G., & Dawson, G. (1995). A fresh look at categorization abilities in persons with autism. In E. Schopler & G. Mesibov (Eds.), Learning and cognition in autism (pp. 119–136). New York: Plenum Press. Klinger, L. G., & Dawson, G. (1995). A fresh look at categorization abilities in persons with autism. In E. Schopler & G. Mesibov (Eds.), Learning and cognition in autism (pp. 119–136). New York: Plenum Press.
go back to reference Klinger, L. G., & Dawson, G. (2001). Prototype formation in autism. Development and Psychology, 13, 111–124. CrossRef Klinger, L. G., & Dawson, G. (2001). Prototype formation in autism. Development and Psychology, 13, 111–124. CrossRef
go back to reference Klinger, L. G., Klinger, M. R., & Pohlig, R. L. (2006). Implicit learning impairments in autism spectrum disorders: Implications for treatment. In J. M. Perez, P. M. Gonzalez, M. L. Comi, & C. Nieto (Eds.), New developments in autism: The future is today (pp. 75–102). Kingsley Press: London. Klinger, L. G., Klinger, M. R., & Pohlig, R. L. (2006). Implicit learning impairments in autism spectrum disorders: Implications for treatment. In J. M. Perez, P. M. Gonzalez, M. L. Comi, & C. Nieto (Eds.), New developments in autism: The future is today (pp. 75–102). Kingsley Press: London.
go back to reference Knowlton, B. J., & Squire, L. R. (1993). The learning of categories: Parallel brain systems for item memory and category knowledge. Science, 262, 1747–1749. PubMedCrossRef Knowlton, B. J., & Squire, L. R. (1993). The learning of categories: Parallel brain systems for item memory and category knowledge. Science, 262, 1747–1749. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lewis, P., & Strauss, M. S. (1986). Infant concept development. In G. Whitehurst (Ed.), Annals of child development. Connecticut: J. A. I. Press. Lewis, P., & Strauss, M. S. (1986). Infant concept development. In G. Whitehurst (Ed.), Annals of child development. Connecticut: J. A. I. Press.
go back to reference Lord, C., Rutter, M., Goode, S., Heemsbergen, J., Jordan, H., Mawhood, L., et al. (1989). Autism diagnostic observation schedule: A standardized observation of communicative and social behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 185–212. PubMedCrossRef Lord, C., Rutter, M., Goode, S., Heemsbergen, J., Jordan, H., Mawhood, L., et al. (1989). Autism diagnostic observation schedule: A standardized observation of communicative and social behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 185–212. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview-revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 659–695. PubMedCrossRef Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview-revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 659–695. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Minshew, N. J., Goldstein, G., Muenz, L. R., & Payton, J. B. (1992). Neuropsychological functioning in non-mentally retarded autistic individuals. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14, 749–761. PubMedCrossRef Minshew, N. J., Goldstein, G., Muenz, L. R., & Payton, J. B. (1992). Neuropsychological functioning in non-mentally retarded autistic individuals. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14, 749–761. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Minshew, N. J., Meyer, J., & Goldstein, G. (2002). Abstract reasoning in autism: A dissociation between concept formation and concept identification. Neuropsychology, 16, 224–327. CrossRef Minshew, N. J., Meyer, J., & Goldstein, G. (2002). Abstract reasoning in autism: A dissociation between concept formation and concept identification. Neuropsychology, 16, 224–327. CrossRef
go back to reference Molesworth, C. J., Bowler, D. M., & Hampton, J. A. (2005). The prototype effect in recognition memory: Intact in autism? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 661–672. PubMedCrossRef Molesworth, C. J., Bowler, D. M., & Hampton, J. A. (2005). The prototype effect in recognition memory: Intact in autism? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 661–672. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Molesworth, C. J., Bowler, D. M., & Hampton, J. A. (2008). When prototypes are not best: Judgments made by children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 1721–1730. PubMedCrossRef Molesworth, C. J., Bowler, D. M., & Hampton, J. A. (2008). When prototypes are not best: Judgments made by children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 1721–1730. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Mottron, L., Dawson, M., Soulières, I., Hubert, B., & Burack, J. (2006). Enhanced perceptual functioning in autism: An update, and eight principles of autistic perception. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 27–43. PubMedCrossRef Mottron, L., Dawson, M., Soulières, I., Hubert, B., & Burack, J. (2006). Enhanced perceptual functioning in autism: An update, and eight principles of autistic perception. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 27–43. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Newell, L. C., Best, C. A., Gastgeb, H., Rump, K. M., & Strauss, M. S. (2010). The development of categorization and facial knowledge: Implications for the study of autism. In L. M. Oakes, C. H. Cashon, M. Casasola, & R. H. Rakison (Eds.), Infant perception and cognition: Recent advances, emerging theories, and future directions. Oxford Press: New York. Newell, L. C., Best, C. A., Gastgeb, H., Rump, K. M., & Strauss, M. S. (2010). The development of categorization and facial knowledge: Implications for the study of autism. In L. M. Oakes, C. H. Cashon, M. Casasola, & R. H. Rakison (Eds.), Infant perception and cognition: Recent advances, emerging theories, and future directions. Oxford Press: New York.
go back to reference Oakes, L. M., Cashon, C. H., Casasola, M., & Rakison, D. H. (Eds.). (2010). Infant perception and cognition: Recent advances, emerging theories, and future directions. New York: Oxford University Press. Oakes, L. M., Cashon, C. H., Casasola, M., & Rakison, D. H. (Eds.). (2010). Infant perception and cognition: Recent advances, emerging theories, and future directions. New York: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Plaisted, K., O’Riordan, M., & Baron-Cohen, S. (1998). Enhanced discrimination of novel, highly similar stimuli by adults with autism during a perceptual learning task. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 765–775. PubMedCrossRef Plaisted, K., O’Riordan, M., & Baron-Cohen, S. (1998). Enhanced discrimination of novel, highly similar stimuli by adults with autism during a perceptual learning task. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 765–775. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Posner, M. I., & Keele, S. W. (1968). On the genesis of abstract ideas. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 77, 353–363. PubMedCrossRef Posner, M. I., & Keele, S. W. (1968). On the genesis of abstract ideas. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 77, 353–363. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Posner, M. I., Goldsmith, R., & Welton, K. E. (1967). Perceived distance and the classification of distorted patterns. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 73, 28–38. PubMedCrossRef Posner, M. I., Goldsmith, R., & Welton, K. E. (1967). Perceived distance and the classification of distorted patterns. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 73, 28–38. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rosch, E., & Lloyd, B. (1978). Cognition and categorization. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Rosch, E., & Lloyd, B. (1978). Cognition and categorization. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
go back to reference Rubenstein, A. J., Kalakanis, L., & Langlois, J. H. (1999). Infant preferences for attractive faces: A cognitive explanation. Developmental Psychology, 35, 848–855. PubMedCrossRef Rubenstein, A. J., Kalakanis, L., & Langlois, J. H. (1999). Infant preferences for attractive faces: A cognitive explanation. Developmental Psychology, 35, 848–855. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Strauss, M. S. (1979). The abstraction of prototypical information by adults and 10 month old infants. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 50, 618–632. CrossRef Strauss, M. S. (1979). The abstraction of prototypical information by adults and 10 month old infants. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 50, 618–632. CrossRef
go back to reference Vladusich, T., Olu-Lafe, O., Kim, D.-S., Tager-Flusberg, H., & Grossberg, S. (2010). Prototypical category learning in high-functioning autism. Autism Research, 3, 1–11. CrossRef Vladusich, T., Olu-Lafe, O., Kim, D.-S., Tager-Flusberg, H., & Grossberg, S. (2010). Prototypical category learning in high-functioning autism. Autism Research, 3, 1–11. CrossRef
go back to reference Wechsler, D. (1999). Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation. Wechsler, D. (1999). Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.
go back to reference Weissman, M. M., Wickramaratne, P., Adams, P., Wolk, S., Verdeli, H., & Olfson, M. (2000). Brief screening for family psychiatric history: The family history screen. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 675–682. PubMedCrossRef Weissman, M. M., Wickramaratne, P., Adams, P., Wolk, S., Verdeli, H., & Olfson, M. (2000). Brief screening for family psychiatric history: The family history screen. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 675–682. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Younger, B. (1990). Infant categorization: Memory for category-level and specific item information. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 50, 131–155. PubMedCrossRef Younger, B. (1990). Infant categorization: Memory for category-level and specific item information. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 50, 131–155. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Younger, B., & Gotlieb, S. (1988). Development of categorization skills: Changes in the nature or structure of infant form categories. Developmental Psychology, 24, 611–619. CrossRef Younger, B., & Gotlieb, S. (1988). Development of categorization skills: Changes in the nature or structure of infant form categories. Developmental Psychology, 24, 611–619. CrossRef
go back to reference Zaki, S. R., & Nosofsky, R. M. (2007). A high-distortion enhancement in the prototype-learning paradigm: Dramatic effects of category learning during test. Memory & Cognition, 35, 2088–2096. CrossRef Zaki, S. R., & Nosofsky, R. M. (2007). A high-distortion enhancement in the prototype-learning paradigm: Dramatic effects of category learning during test. Memory & Cognition, 35, 2088–2096. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Category Formation in Autism: Can Individuals with Autism Form Categories and Prototypes of Dot Patterns?
Auteurs
Holly Zajac Gastgeb
Eva M. Dundas
Nancy J. Minshew
Mark S. Strauss
Publicatiedatum
01-08-2012
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 8/2012
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1411-x

Andere artikelen Uitgave 8/2012

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 8/2012 Naar de uitgave