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In recent years, the clinical importance of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has increased dramatically. As a consequence, more clinicians need to become familiar with this imaging modality, including its technical challenges. MR images are obtained through a physical process of proton excitation and the reception of resonating signals. Besides these physical principles, the motion of the heart and diaphragm, together with the presence of fast flowing blood in the vicinity, pose challenges to the acquisition of high-quality diagnostic images and are an important cause of image artefacts. Artefacts may render images non-diagnostic and measurements unreliable, and most artefacts can only be corrected during the acquisition itself. Hence, timely and accurate recognition of the type of artefact is crucial. This paper provides a concise description of the CMR acquisition process and the underlying MR physics for clinical cardiologists and trainees. Frequently observed CMR artefacts are illustrated and possible adjustments to minimise or eliminate these artefacts are explained.
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- Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: artefacts for clinicians
A. W. M. van der Graaf
M. J. W. Götte
- Bohn Stafleu van Loghum