Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 8/2017

24-05-2017 | Original Paper

Can Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder Use Virtual Reality Driving Simulation Training to Evaluate and Improve Driving Performance? An Exploratory Study

Auteurs: Daniel J. Cox, Timothy Brown, Veerle Ross, Matthew Moncrief, Rose Schmitt, Gary Gaffney, Ron Reeve

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 8/2017

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Investigate how novice drivers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) differ from experienced drivers and whether virtual reality driving simulation training (VRDST) improves ASD driving performance. 51 novice ASD drivers (mean age 17.96 years, 78% male) were randomized to routine training (RT) or one of three types of VRDST (8–12 sessions). All participants followed DMV behind-the-wheel training guidelines for earning a driver’s license. Participants were assessed pre- and post-training for driving-specific executive function (EF) abilities and tactical driving skills. ASD drivers showed worse baseline EF and driving skills than experienced drivers. At post-assessment, VRDST significantly improved driving and EF performance over RT. This study demonstrated feasibility and potential efficacy of VRDST for novice ASD drivers.
Literatuur
go back to reference Adler, L. A., Resnick, S., Kunz, M., & Devinsky, O. (1995). Open-label trial of venlafaxine in adults with attention deficit disorder. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 31(4), 785–788. PubMed Adler, L. A., Resnick, S., Kunz, M., & Devinsky, O. (1995). Open-label trial of venlafaxine in adults with attention deficit disorder. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 31(4), 785–788. PubMed
go back to reference Akinwuntan, A. E., Weerdt, W. D., Feys, H., Pauwels, J., Baten, G., Arno, P., et al. (2005). Effect of simulator training on driving after stroke: A randomized controlled trial. Neurology, 65, 843–850. CrossRefPubMed Akinwuntan, A. E., Weerdt, W. D., Feys, H., Pauwels, J., Baten, G., Arno, P., et al. (2005). Effect of simulator training on driving after stroke: A randomized controlled trial. Neurology, 65, 843–850. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Baddeley, A. (2007). Working memory, thought, and action. New York: Oxford University. CrossRef Baddeley, A. (2007). Working memory, thought, and action. New York: Oxford University. CrossRef
go back to reference Bölte, S. (2004). Computer-based intervention in autism spectrum disorders. In O. T. Ryaskin (Ed.), Focus on autism research (pp. 247–260). New York: Nova Science. Bölte, S. (2004). Computer-based intervention in autism spectrum disorders. In O. T. Ryaskin (Ed.), Focus on autism research (pp. 247–260). New York: Nova Science.
go back to reference Brooks, J. O., Mossey, E., M., Collins, J. C., & Tyler, P. (2013). An exploratory investigation: are driving simulators appropriate to teach pre-driving skills to young adults with intellectual disabilities? British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(2), 204–213. Brooks, J. O., Mossey, E., M., Collins, J. C., & Tyler, P. (2013). An exploratory investigation: are driving simulators appropriate to teach pre-driving skills to young adults with intellectual disabilities? British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(2), 204–213.
go back to reference Cascio, C. N., Carp, J., OʼDonnell, M. B., Tinney, F. J., Bingham, R. C., Shope, J. T., & Falk, E. B. (2014). Buffering social influence: neural correlates of response inhibition predict driving safety in the presence of a peer. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 27(1), 83–95. CrossRef Cascio, C. N., Carp, J., OʼDonnell, M. B., Tinney, F. J., Bingham, R. C., Shope, J. T., & Falk, E. B. (2014). Buffering social influence: neural correlates of response inhibition predict driving safety in the presence of a peer. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 27(1), 83–95. CrossRef
go back to reference Cassavaugh, N. D., & Kramer, A. F. (2009). Transfer of computer-based training to simulated driving in older adults. Applied Ergonomics, 40(5), 943–952. CrossRefPubMed Cassavaugh, N. D., & Kramer, A. F. (2009). Transfer of computer-based training to simulated driving in older adults. Applied Ergonomics, 40(5), 943–952. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Casutt, G., Theill, N., Martin, M., Keller, M., & Jäncke, L. (2014). The drive-wise project: driving simulator training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 6(85). doi: 10.​3389/​fnagi.​2014.​00085. Casutt, G., Theill, N., Martin, M., Keller, M., & Jäncke, L. (2014). The drive-wise project: driving simulator training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 6(85). doi: 10.​3389/​fnagi.​2014.​00085.
go back to reference Classen, S., & Monahan, M. (2013). Evidence-based review on interventions and determinants of driving performance in teens with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or autism spectrum disorder. Traffic Injury Prevention, 14(2), 188–193. CrossRefPubMed Classen, S., & Monahan, M. (2013). Evidence-based review on interventions and determinants of driving performance in teens with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or autism spectrum disorder. Traffic Injury Prevention, 14(2), 188–193. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Conway, A. A., Kane, M. J., Bunting, M. F., Hambrick, D. Z., Wilhelm, O., & Engle, R. W. (2005). Working memory span tasks: A methodological review and user’s guide. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 12(5), 769–786. CrossRefPubMed Conway, A. A., Kane, M. J., Bunting, M. F., Hambrick, D. Z., Wilhelm, O., & Engle, R. W. (2005). Working memory span tasks: A methodological review and user’s guide. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 12(5), 769–786. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cox, C. V., Wharam, R., Mouran, R., & Cox, D. J. (2009). Does virtual reality driving simulation training transfer to on-road driving in novice drivers? A pilot study. Chronicle of the American Driver and Traffic Safety Education Association, 57(1). Cox, C. V., Wharam, R., Mouran, R., & Cox, D. J. (2009). Does virtual reality driving simulation training transfer to on-road driving in novice drivers? A pilot study. Chronicle of the American Driver and Traffic Safety Education Association, 57(1).
go back to reference Cox, D. J., Banton, T., Record, S., & Grabman, J. H. (2015a). Does correcting astigmatism with toric contact lenses improve driving safety? A pilot study. Optometry and Vision Science, 92(4), 404–411. CrossRefPubMed Cox, D. J., Banton, T., Record, S., & Grabman, J. H. (2015a). Does correcting astigmatism with toric contact lenses improve driving safety? A pilot study. Optometry and Vision Science, 92(4), 404–411. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cox, D. J., Davis, M., Singh, H., Barbour, B., Nidiffer, D., Trudel, T., & Moncrief, R. (2010). Driving rehabilitation for military personnel recovering from traumatic brain injury using virtual reality driving simulation: A feasibility study. Military Medicine, 175(6), 411–416. CrossRefPubMed Cox, D. J., Davis, M., Singh, H., Barbour, B., Nidiffer, D., Trudel, T., & Moncrief, R. (2010). Driving rehabilitation for military personnel recovering from traumatic brain injury using virtual reality driving simulation: A feasibility study. Military Medicine, 175(6), 411–416. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cox, D. J., Merkel, R. L., Kovatchev, B., & Seward, R. (2000). Effect of stimulant medication on driving performance of young adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A preliminary double-blind placebo controlled trial. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 188(4), 230–234. CrossRefPubMed Cox, D. J., Merkel, R. L., Kovatchev, B., & Seward, R. (2000). Effect of stimulant medication on driving performance of young adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A preliminary double-blind placebo controlled trial. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 188(4), 230–234. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cox, D. J., Moncrief, M., Rizzo, M., Fisher, D., Lambert, A., Thomas, S., et al. (2015b). Low hanging fruit: Use of virtual reality simulation in Department of Motor Vehicles to assess minimal competence of novice drivers. In Paper presented at international driving symposium on human factors in driving assessment, training, and vehicle design. Salt Lake City, UT. Cox, D. J., Moncrief, M., Rizzo, M., Fisher, D., Lambert, A., Thomas, S., et al. (2015b). Low hanging fruit: Use of virtual reality simulation in Department of Motor Vehicles to assess minimal competence of novice drivers. In Paper presented at international driving symposium on human factors in driving assessment, training, and vehicle design. Salt Lake City, UT.
go back to reference Cox, D. J., Taylor, P., & Kovatchev, B. (1999). Driving simulation performance predicts future accidents among older drivers. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 47(3), 381–382. CrossRefPubMed Cox, D. J., Taylor, P., & Kovatchev, B. (1999). Driving simulation performance predicts future accidents among older drivers. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 47(3), 381–382. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cox, N. B., Reeve, R. E., Cox, S. M., & Cox, D. J. (2012). Brief report: Driving and young adults with ASD: Parents’ experiences. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 2257–2262. CrossRefPubMed Cox, N. B., Reeve, R. E., Cox, S. M., & Cox, D. J. (2012). Brief report: Driving and young adults with ASD: Parents’ experiences. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 2257–2262. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cox, S. M., Cox, D. J., Kofler, M. J., Moncrief, M. A., Johnson, R. J., Cain, S. A., & Reeve, R. E. (2016). Driving simulator performance in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: The role of executive functions and basic motor skills. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi: 10.​1007/​s10803-015-2677-1. PubMed Cox, S. M., Cox, D. J., Kofler, M. J., Moncrief, M. A., Johnson, R. J., Cain, S. A., & Reeve, R. E. (2016). Driving simulator performance in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: The role of executive functions and basic motor skills. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi: 10.​1007/​s10803-015-2677-1. PubMed
go back to reference Daly, B. P., Nicholls, E. G., Patrick, K. E., Brinckman, D. D., & Schultheis, M. T. (2014). Driving behaviors in adults with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(12), 3119–3128. doi: 10.​1007/​s10803-014-2166-y. CrossRefPubMed Daly, B. P., Nicholls, E. G., Patrick, K. E., Brinckman, D. D., & Schultheis, M. T. (2014). Driving behaviors in adults with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(12), 3119–3128. doi: 10.​1007/​s10803-014-2166-y. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Dempster, F. N. (1992). The rise and fall of the inhibitory mechanism: Toward a unified theory of cognitive development and aging. Developmental Review, 12(1), 45–75. CrossRef Dempster, F. N. (1992). The rise and fall of the inhibitory mechanism: Toward a unified theory of cognitive development and aging. Developmental Review, 12(1), 45–75. CrossRef
go back to reference Dickerson, A. E., & Bédard, M. (2014). Decision tool for clients with medical issues: A framework for identifying driving risk and potential to return to driving. Occupational Therapy In Health Care, 28(2), 94–202. doi: 10.​3109/​07380577.​2014.​903357. Dickerson, A. E., & Bédard, M. (2014). Decision tool for clients with medical issues: A framework for identifying driving risk and potential to return to driving. Occupational Therapy In Health Care, 28(2), 94–202. doi: 10.​3109/​07380577.​2014.​903357.
go back to reference Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G* power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 175–191. CrossRefPubMed Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G* power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 175–191. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Freund, B., Colgrove, L. A., Petrakos, D., & McLeod, R. (2008). In my car the brake is on the right: Pedal errors among older drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 40, 403–409. CrossRefPubMed Freund, B., Colgrove, L. A., Petrakos, D., & McLeod, R. (2008). In my car the brake is on the right: Pedal errors among older drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 40, 403–409. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hoffman, J. D., Lee, J. D., Brown, T. L., & McGehee, D. V. (2002). Comparison of driver braking responses in a high-fidelity simulator and on a test track. Transportation Research Record, 1803(1), 59–65. CrossRef Hoffman, J. D., Lee, J. D., Brown, T. L., & McGehee, D. V. (2002). Comparison of driver braking responses in a high-fidelity simulator and on a test track. Transportation Research Record, 1803(1), 59–65. CrossRef
go back to reference Hofmann, W., Schmeichel, B. J., & Baddeley, A. D. (2012). Executive functions and self-regulation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(3), 174–180. CrossRefPubMed Hofmann, W., Schmeichel, B. J., & Baddeley, A. D. (2012). Executive functions and self-regulation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(3), 174–180. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Huang, P., Kao, T., Curry, A. E., & Durbin, D. R. (2012). Factors associated with driving in teens with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 33, 70–74. CrossRefPubMed Huang, P., Kao, T., Curry, A. E., & Durbin, D. R. (2012). Factors associated with driving in teens with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 33, 70–74. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lambert, A. E., Simons-Morton, B. G., Cain, S. A., Weisz, S., & Cox, D. J. (2014). Considerations of a dual-systems model of cognitive development and risky driving. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 24(3), 541–550. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Lambert, A. E., Simons-Morton, B. G., Cain, S. A., Weisz, S., & Cox, D. J. (2014). Considerations of a dual-systems model of cognitive development and risky driving. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 24(3), 541–550. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Malik, H., Rakotonirainy, A., & Maire, F. (2009). Correlating eye gaze direction, depth and vehicle information on an interactive. 2009 Australasian Road Safety Research, Policing and Education Conference : Smarter, Safer Directions. Sydney: Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre. Malik, H., Rakotonirainy, A., & Maire, F. (2009). Correlating eye gaze direction, depth and vehicle information on an interactive. 2009 Australasian Road Safety Research, Policing and Education Conference : Smarter, Safer Directions. Sydney: Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre.
go back to reference Mäntylä, T., Karlsson, M. J., & Marklund, M. (2009). Executive control functions in simulated driving. Applied Neuropsychology, 16, 11–18. CrossRefPubMed Mäntylä, T., Karlsson, M. J., & Marklund, M. (2009). Executive control functions in simulated driving. Applied Neuropsychology, 16, 11–18. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Massie, D. L., Campbell, K. L., & Williams, A. F. (1995). Traffic accident involvement rates by driver age and gender. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 27(1), 73–87. CrossRefPubMed Massie, D. L., Campbell, K. L., & Williams, A. F. (1995). Traffic accident involvement rates by driver age and gender. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 27(1), 73–87. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Michon, J. A. (1985). A critical view of driver behaviour models: What do we know, what should we do? In L. Evans, & R. C. Schwing (Eds.), Human behaviour and traffic safety (pp. 485–524). New York: Plenum. Michon, J. A. (1985). A critical view of driver behaviour models: What do we know, what should we do? In L. Evans, & R. C. Schwing (Eds.), Human behaviour and traffic safety (pp. 485–524). New York: Plenum.
go back to reference Monahan, M., Classen, S., & Helsel, P. V. (2013). Pre-driving evaluation of a teen with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 80(1), 35–41. doi: 10.​1177/​0008417412474221​. CrossRef Monahan, M., Classen, S., & Helsel, P. V. (2013). Pre-driving evaluation of a teen with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 80(1), 35–41. doi: 10.​1177/​0008417412474221​. CrossRef
go back to reference Parsons, S., Mitchell, P., & Leonard, A. (2004). The use and understanding of virtual environments by adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(4), 449–466. CrossRefPubMed Parsons, S., Mitchell, P., & Leonard, A. (2004). The use and understanding of virtual environments by adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(4), 449–466. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Pradhan, A., Pollatsek, A., & Fisher, D. L. (2007). Comparison of trained and untrained novice drivers’ gaze behavior in risky and non-risky scenarios. Proceedings of the fourth international driving symposium on human factors in driver assessment, training and vehicle design. Stevenson, Washington. Pradhan, A., Pollatsek, A., & Fisher, D. L. (2007). Comparison of trained and untrained novice drivers’ gaze behavior in risky and non-risky scenarios. Proceedings of the fourth international driving symposium on human factors in driver assessment, training and vehicle design. Stevenson, Washington.
go back to reference Reimer, B., Aleardi, M., Martin, J. M., Coughlin, J. F., & Biederman, J. (2006). Characterizing impaired driving in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A controlled study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67(4), 567–574. CrossRefPubMed Reimer, B., Aleardi, M., Martin, J. M., Coughlin, J. F., & Biederman, J. (2006). Characterizing impaired driving in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A controlled study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67(4), 567–574. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Reimer, B., Fried, R., Mehler, B., Joshi, G., Bolfek, A., Godfrey, K. M., & Biederman, J. (2013). Brief report: Examining driving behavior in young adults with high functioning autism spectrum disorders: A pilot study using a driving simulation paradigm. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 2211–2217. CrossRefPubMed Reimer, B., Fried, R., Mehler, B., Joshi, G., Bolfek, A., Godfrey, K. M., & Biederman, J. (2013). Brief report: Examining driving behavior in young adults with high functioning autism spectrum disorders: A pilot study using a driving simulation paradigm. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 2211–2217. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Ross, V., Jongen, E. M., Vanvuchelen, M., Brijs, T., Brijs, K., & Wets, G. (2015b). Exploring the driving behavior of youth with an autism spectrum disorder: a driver instructor questionnaire. 8th international driving symposium on human factors in driver assessment, training and vehicle design. Salt Lake City. Ross, V., Jongen, E. M., Vanvuchelen, M., Brijs, T., Brijs, K., & Wets, G. (2015b). Exploring the driving behavior of youth with an autism spectrum disorder: a driver instructor questionnaire. 8th international driving symposium on human factors in driver assessment, training and vehicle design. Salt Lake City.
go back to reference Ross, V., Jongen, E. M., Wang, W., Brijs, T., Brijs, K., Ruiter, R. A., & Wets, G. (2014). Investigating the influence of working memory capacity when driving behavior is combined with cognitive load: An LCT study of young novice drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 62, 377–387. CrossRefPubMed Ross, V., Jongen, E. M., Wang, W., Brijs, T., Brijs, K., Ruiter, R. A., & Wets, G. (2014). Investigating the influence of working memory capacity when driving behavior is combined with cognitive load: An LCT study of young novice drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 62, 377–387. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Sheppard, E., Ropar, D., Underwood, G., & van Loon, E. (2010). Brief report: Driving hazard perception in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 504–508. CrossRefPubMed Sheppard, E., Ropar, D., Underwood, G., & van Loon, E. (2010). Brief report: Driving hazard perception in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 504–508. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Sheppard, E., Van Loon, E., Underwood, G., & Ropar, D. (2016). Attentional differences in a driving hazard perception task in adults with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1–10. Sheppard, E., Van Loon, E., Underwood, G., & Ropar, D. (2016). Attentional differences in a driving hazard perception task in adults with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1–10.
go back to reference Strickland, D. (1997). Virtual Reality for the Treatment of Autism. Virtual Reality in Neuro-Psycho-Physiology, 81–86. Strickland, D. (1997). Virtual Reality for the Treatment of Autism. Virtual Reality in Neuro-Psycho-Physiology, 81–86.
go back to reference Unsworth, N., Heitz, R. P., Schrock, J. C., & Engle, R. W. (2005). An automated version of the operation span task. Behavior Research Methods, 37(3), 498–505. CrossRefPubMed Unsworth, N., Heitz, R. P., Schrock, J. C., & Engle, R. W. (2005). An automated version of the operation span task. Behavior Research Methods, 37(3), 498–505. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Vlakveld, W., Romoser, M. R., Mehranian, H., Diete, F., Pollatsek, A., & Fisher, D. L. (2011). Do crashes and near crashes in simulator-based training enhance novice drivers’ visual search for latent hazards? Transportation Research Record, 2265, 153–160. CrossRefPubMed Vlakveld, W., Romoser, M. R., Mehranian, H., Diete, F., Pollatsek, A., & Fisher, D. L. (2011). Do crashes and near crashes in simulator-based training enhance novice drivers’ visual search for latent hazards? Transportation Research Record, 2265, 153–160. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Wade, J., Bian, D., Zhang, L., Swanson, A., Sarkar, M., Warren, Z., & Sarkar, N. (2014). Design of a Virtual Reality Driving Environment to Assess Performance of Teenagers with ASD. In Universal access in human-computer interaction. Universal access to information and knowledge (pp. 466–474). New York: Springer International Publishing. Wade, J., Bian, D., Zhang, L., Swanson, A., Sarkar, M., Warren, Z., & Sarkar, N. (2014). Design of a Virtual Reality Driving Environment to Assess Performance of Teenagers with ASD. In Universal access in human-computer interaction. Universal access to information and knowledge (pp. 466–474). New York: Springer International Publishing.
Metagegevens
Titel
Can Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder Use Virtual Reality Driving Simulation Training to Evaluate and Improve Driving Performance? An Exploratory Study
Auteurs
Daniel J. Cox
Timothy Brown
Veerle Ross
Matthew Moncrief
Rose Schmitt
Gary Gaffney
Ron Reeve
Publicatiedatum
24-05-2017
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 8/2017
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3164-7