Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Presented in part to the American College of Chest Physicians International Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii in October, 2011, by B.A.S.
Bronchoscopic evaluations revealed that some children have double branching of bronchi (designated “doublets”) in the lower lungs airways, rather than normal, single branching. Retrospective analyses revealed only one commonality in them: all subjects with doublets also had autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). That is, 49 subjects exhibited the presence of initial normal anatomy in upper airway followed by doublets in the lower airway. In contrast, the normal branching pattern was noted in all the remaining 410 subjects who did not have a diagnosis of autism/ASD. We propose that the presence of doublets might be an objective, reliable, and valid biologic marker of autism/ASD.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Borger-Megiddo, I., Shaw, D. W., Friedman, S. D., Sparks, B. F., et al. (2006). Corpus collosum morphometrics in small children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,36, 733–739. CrossRef
Bricker, D., Squires, J., & Mounts, L. (1995). Ages and Stages Questionnaire: A parent-completed child monitoring system. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Elsabbagh, M., Divan, G., Koh, Y. J., Kim, Y. S., et al. (2012). Global prevalence of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. Autism Research,. doi: 10.1002/aur.239.
Filipek, P. A., Accardo, P. J., Ashwal, S., Baranek, G. T., Cook, E. H., Jr, Dawson, G., et al. (2000). Practice parameter: Screening and diagnosis of autism. Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Child Neurological Society. Neurology,55, 468–479. PubMedCrossRef
Gaultier, C. (1999). Developmental anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. In L. M. Taussig & L. T. Landau (Eds.), Pediatric respiratory medicine (pp. 18–37). St. Louis: Mosby.
Glasco, F. P. (2002). The Brigance infant and toddler screen standardization and validation. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics,23, 145–150. CrossRef
Insel, T. (2012). Autism prevalence: more affected or mor detected? (reported by National Institute of Mental Health in the Director’s Blog.) http://www.nimh.nih.gov/about/director.
Klar, A. J. S. (2011/2012). Breast cancer predisposition and brain hemispheric laterality specification likely share a common genetic cause. Breast Disease,33, 49–52.
Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule—generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,30, 205–223. PubMedCrossRef
Meresse, I. G., Zilbovicius, M., Boddaert, N., Robel, L., et al. (2005). Autism severity and temporal lobe functional abnormalities. Annals of Neurology,58, 466–469. CrossRef
Miles, J. H., Takahashi, T. N., Bagby, S., Sahota, P. K., et al. (2005). Essential versus complex autism: Definition of fundamental prognostic subtypes. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A,135A, 171–180. CrossRef
O’Roark, B. J., Vives, L., Girirajan, S., Karakoc, E., et al. (2012). Sporadic autism exomes reveal a highly interconnected protein network of mutations. Nature,. doi: 10.1038/nature10989.
Pinkerton, K. E., & Joad, J. P. (2000). The mammalian respiratory system and critical windows of exposure for children’s health. Environmental Health Perspectives,108, 457–462. PubMed
Schopler, E., Reichler, J., & Renner, B. (1980). The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (C.A.R.S.). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
Strain, P. S., & Bovey, E. H. (2011). Randomized, controlled trial of the LEAP model of early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorders. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education,32, 133–154. CrossRef
Thurlbeck, W. M. (1991). Pre-and post-natal organ development. In V. Chernick & R. Mellins (Eds.), Basic mechanisms of pediatric respiratory disease: Cellular and integrative (pp. 23–35). Philadelphia: B.C. Decker, Inc.
Whitset, J. A., & Wert, S. E. (2006). Molecular determinants of lung morphogenesis. In V. Chernick, T. Boat, R. Wilmott, & A. Bush (Eds.), Kendig’s disorders of the respiratory tract in children (7th ed., pp. 1–16). Philadelphia: Saunders & Elsevier. CrossRef
Wiebel, E. R. (1962). Architecture of the human lung: Use of quantitative measures establishes fundamental relations between size and number of lung structures. Science,137, 577–585. CrossRef
- Can Bronchoscopic Airway Anatomy Be an Indicator of Autism?
Barbara A. Stewart
Amar J. S. Klar
- Springer US