Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Childhood adverse experiences have been consistently documented to engender persistent changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to chronic stress. However, there has been very little research examining whether this effect can be elicited among children when using a standardized laboratory stress test, or whether such effects are found in non-Western youth. In the current study, 80 10-year-old Chinese children (45% girls, 4-5th grades) were selected from 970 students based on the experience of being bullied, resulting in a sample of 59 victims (physical, verbal, and relational/social), and a group of 21 nonbullied children with distributions of age and gender that were comparable. We examined the association between bullying victimization and cortisol reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) at six time points using repeated-measures analyses of variance. The results showed that the TSST was a valid protocol among Chinese children for testing the functioning of HPA axis, based on two indicators: cortisol increase in response to stressor, and cortisol decrease after stressor removal. Based on the TSST, both cortisol reactivity and total cortisol concentration over the course of TSST were higher in bullied children relative to nonbullied children. Moreover, there were no differences in cortisol levels between victimization sub-types. Our study extended prior findings, by showing that cortisol dysregulation in response to stress may be related to bullying victimization.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Bond, M. H. (1996). Handbook of Chinese psychology. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.
Card, N. A., Isaacs, J., & Hodges, E. V. (2007). Correlates of school victimization: Implications for prevention and intervention. In J. E. Zins, M. J. Elias, & C. A. Maher (Eds.), Bullying, victimization, and peer harassment: A handbook of prevention and intervention (pp. 339–366). London: Psychology Press.
Chen, G., & Kong, Y. (2016). Impact of trier social stress test on children salivary cortisol secretion. Psychological Development and Education, 32, 532–538 (In Chinese).
Chen, X., Kaspar, V., Zhang, Y., Wang, L., & Zheng, S. (2004). Peer relationships among Chinese boys. In N. Way & J. Y. Chu (Eds.), Adolescent boys: Exploring diverse cultures of boyhood (pp. 278–318). New York: New York University Press.
Chen, G., Zhang, W., Zhang, W., & Deater-Deckard, K. (2017). A “defender protective effect” in multiple-role combinations of bullying among Chinese adolescents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260517698278.
Li, Y. (2015). Characteristics of cyber bullying /victimization in adolescents. China Journal of Health Psychology, 23, 1523–1527 (in Chinese).
Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. Cambridge: Blackwell.
Olweus, D. (1996). Bully/victim problems at school: Fact and effective intervention. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Problems, 5, 15–22.
Olweus, D. (1999). Sweden. In P. Smith, Y. Morita, J. Junger-Tas, D. Olweus, R. Catalano, & P. Slee (Eds.), The nature of school bullying: A cross-national perspective (pp. 7–27). London: Routledge.
Ouellet-Morin, I., Danese, A., Bowes, L., Shakoor, S., Ambler, A., Pariante, C. M., et al. (2011a). A discordant monozygotic twin design shows blunted cortisol reactivity among bullied children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 50, 574–582. CrossRef
Ouellet-Morin, I., Wong, C. C., Danese, A., Pariante, C. M., Papadopoulos, A. S., Mill, J., et al. (2013). Increased serotonin transporter gene (SERT) DNA methylation is associated with bullying victimization and blunted cortisol response to stress in childhood: A longitudinal study of discordant monozygotic twins. Psychological Medicine, 43, 1813–1823. CrossRefPubMed
Sapolsky, R. M., Romero, L. M., & Munck, A. U. (2000). How do glucocorticoids influence stress responses? Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory, and preparative actions. Endocrine Reviews, 21, 55–89. PubMed
Schwartz, D., Tom, S. R., Chang, L., Xu, Y., Duong, M. T., & Kelly, B. M. (2010). Popularity and acceptance as distinct dimensions of social standing for Chinese children in Hong Kong. Social Development, 19, 681–697. CrossRef
Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder: Westview Press.
Wang, M., & Zhang, W. (2002). Peer relationships of bullies, victims and bully-victims in primary and junior middle schools. Psychological Development and Education, 2, 1–5 (In Chinese).
Zhang, W. (2002). Prevalence and major characteristics of bullying/victimization among primary and junior middle school children. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 34, 387–394 (In Chinese).
Zhang, W., Chen, L., & Chen, G. (2016). Research on school bullying in mainland China. In K. S. Peter, K. Keumjoo, & T. Yuichi (Eds.), School bullying in different cultures (pp. 113–132). London: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
- Bullying Victimization Heightens Cortisol Response to Psychosocial Stress in Chinese Children
- Springer US