Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
PTSD symptoms related to school bullying have rarely been investigated, and never in national samples. We used data from a national survey to investigate this among students from grades 8 and 9 (n = 963). The prevalence estimates of exposure to bullying were within the range of earlier research findings. Multinomial logistic regression showed that boys were 2.27 times more likely to be exposed to frequent bullying than girls. A latent variable second-order model demonstrated an association between frequency of bullying exposure and PTSD symptoms (beta = 0.49). This relationship was not moderated by gender. However, the average levels of PTSD symptoms as well as clinical range symptoms were higher for girls. For all bullied students, 27.6% of the boys and 40.5% of the girls had scores within the clinical range. A mimic model showed that youth who identify as being both a bully and a victim of bullying were more troubled than those who were victims only. Our findings support the idea that exposure to bullying is a potential risk factor for PTSD symptoms among students. Future research could investigate whether the same holds for PTSD through diagnostic procedures, but this will depend on whether or not bullying is decided to comply with the DSM-IV classification of trauma required for diagnosis. Results are discussed with regard to their implications for school interventions.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
APA. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Text revision) (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Berkowitz, L. (1993). Aggression: its causes, consequences, and control. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Björkqvist, K., Österman, K., & Hjeltbäck, M. (1994). Aggression among university employees. Aggressive Behavior, 20, 173–184. CrossRef
Bowes, L., Arseneault, L., Maughan, B., Taylor, A., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. E. (2009). School, neighborhood, and family factors are associated with children’s bullying involvement: a nationally representative longitudinal study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(5), 545–553. doi: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e31819cb017. PubMedCrossRef
Bremner, J. D. (2006). Traumatic stress from a multiple-levels-of-analysis perspective. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: developmental neuroscience (Vol. 2, pp. 656–676). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., Rose, S., & Kirk, M. (1999). Acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in victims of violent crime. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(3), 360–366. PubMed
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park: Sage.
Cicchetti, D., & Curtis, J. (2006). The developing brain and neural plasticity: Implications for normality, psychopathology, and resilience. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: developmental neuroscience (Vol. 2, pp. 1–64). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Craig, W., Harel-Fisch, Y., Fogel-Grinvald, H., Dostaler, S., Hetland, J., Simons-Morton, B., & Due, P. (2009). A cross-national profile of bullying and victimization among adolescents in 40 countries. International Journal of Public Health, 54, 216–224. doi: 10.1007/s00038-009-5413-9. PubMedCrossRef
Derryberry, D., & Tucker, D. M. (2006). Motivation, self-regulation, and self-organization. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: developmental neuroscience (Vol. 2, pp. 502–532). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Hawker, D. S. J., & Boulton, M. J. (2000). Twenty years’ research on peer victimization and psychosocial maladjustment: a meta-analytic review of cross-sectional studies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 41(4), 441–469. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00629. PubMedCrossRef
Herba, C. M., Ferdinand, R. F., Stijnen, T., Veenstra, R., Oldehinkel, A. J., Ormel, J., & Verhulst, F. C. (2008). Victimisation and suicide ideation in the TRAILS study: specific vulnerabilities of victims. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(8), 867–876. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01900.x. PubMedCrossRef
Horowitz, M. J., Wilner, N., & Alvarez, W. (1979). Impact of event scale: a measure of subjective stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 41, 209–218. PubMed
Johnson, M. H., & de Haan, M. (2006). Typical and atypical human functional brain development. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: developmental neuroscience (Vol. 2, pp. 197–215). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Jöreskog, K. G. (1993). Testing structural equation models. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 294–316). Newbury Park: Sage.
Klomek, A. B., Sourander, A., Niemela, S., Kumpulainen, K., Piha, J., Tamminen, T., & Gould, M. (2009). Childhood bullying behaviors as a risk for suicide attempts and completed suicides: a population-based birth cohort study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(3), 254–261. doi: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e318196b91f. PubMedCrossRef
Long, M. E., Elhai, J. D., Schweinle, A., Gray, M. J., Grubaugh, A. L., & Frueh, B. C. (2008). Differences in posttraumatic stress disorder diagnostic rates and symptom severity between criterion A1 and non-criterion A1 stressors. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 1255–1263. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2008.01.006. PubMedCrossRef
Marsh, H. W., Nagengast, B., Morin, A. J. S., Parada, R. H., Craven, R. G., & Hamilton, L. R. (2011). Construct validity of the multidimensional structure of bullying and victimization: an application of exploratory structural equation modeling. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(3), 701–732. doi: 10.1037/a0024122. CrossRef
McKenney, K. S., Pepler, D. J., Craig, W. M., & Connolly, J. A. (2005). Psychosocial consequences of peer victimization in elementary and high school - an examination of posttraumatic stress disorder Symptomatology. In K. A. Kendall-Tackett & S. M. Giacomoni (Eds.), Child victimization. Kingston: Civic Research Institute.
Meiser-Stedman, R., Yule, W., Smith, P., Glucksman, E., & Dalgleish, T. (2005). Acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents involved in assaults or motor vehicle accidents. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 1381–1383. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp. 162.7.1381. PubMedCrossRef
Mol, S. S. L., Arntz, A., Metsemakers, J. F. M., Dinant, G.-J., Vilters-van Montfort, P. A. P., & Knottnerus, J. A. (2005). Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder after non-traumatic events: evidence from an open population study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 186, 494–499. doi: 10.1192/bjp. 186.6.494. PubMedCrossRef
Muthén, B. O. (1997). Latent variable modeling of longituidinal and multilevel data. In A. Raftery (Ed.), Sociological methodology (pp. 453–480). Boston: Blackwell Publishers.
Muthén, B. O. (2007). Chi-square difference testing using the Satorra–Bentler scaled chi-square, fromhttp://www.statmodel.com/chidiff.shtml.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2011). Mplus version 6.11. Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.
Nader, R., & Koch, W. J. (2006). Does bullying result in posttraumatic stress disorder?, from http://www.drwilliamkoch.com/articles/Bullying%20and%20PTSD%20Review.doc.
Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth: prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 2094–2100. doi: 10.1001/jama.285.16.2094. PubMedCrossRef
Pynoos, R. S., Steinberg, A. M., Layne, C. M., Briggs, E. C., Ostrowski, S. A., & Fairbank, J. A. (2009). DSM-V PTSD diagnostic criteria for children and adolescents: a developmental perspective and recommendations. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22(5), 391–398. doi: 10.1002/jts.20450. Proceedings Paper. PubMedCrossRef
Rubin, D. C., Boals, A., & Berntsen, D. (2008). Memory in posttraumatic stress disorder: properties of voluntary and involuntary, traumatic and nontraumatic autobiographical memories in people with and without posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 137(4), 591–614. doi: 10.1037/a0013165. PubMed
Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). A scaled difference chi-square test statistic for moment structure analysis, from http://www.stat.ucla.edu/papers/preprints/260/.
Scott, M. J., & Stradling, S. C. (1992). Counselling of post traumatic stress disorder. London: Sage.
Shakoor, S., Jaffee, S. R., Andreou, P., Bowes, L., Ambler, A. P., Caspi, A., & Arseneault, L. (2011). Mothers and children as informants of bullying victimization: results from an epidemiological cohort of children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 379–387. doi: 10.1007/s10802-010-9463-5. PubMedCrossRef
Smith, P. K. (1997). Commentary III. Bullying in life-span perspective: what can studies of school bullying and workplace bullying learn from each other? Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 7, 249–255. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1298(199706)7:3<249::AID-CASP425>3.0.CO;2-2. CrossRef
SPSS. (2009). SPSS for windows, Rel. 18.0.0. Chicago: IBM SPSS Inc.
Veenstra, R., Lindenberg, S., Oldehinkel, A. J., De Winter, A. F., Verhulst, F. C., & Ormel, J. (2005). Bullying and victimization in elementary schools: a comparison of bullies, victims, bully/victims, and uninvolved preadolescents. Developmental Psychology, 41(4), 672. doi: 10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.1682. PubMedCrossRef
Yule, W. (1992). Post traumatic stress disorder in child survivors of shipping disasters: the sinking of the “Jupiter”. Journal of Psychotherapy. Psychosomatics, 57, 200–205. CrossRef
- Bullying and PTSD Symptoms
Ella Cosmovici Idsoe
- Springer US