Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 7/2013

01-07-2013 | Brief Report

Brief Report: Effect of Spatial Complexity on Visual Short-Term Memory and Self-Reported Autistic-Like Traits in Typically Developed Individuals

Auteurs: Junichi Takahashi, Jiro Gyoba, Nozomi Yamawaki

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 7/2013

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

This report examines effects of the spatial complexity of configurations on visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity for individuals from the general population differing on autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) scores. During each trial, nine-line segments with various orientations were arrayed in simple or complex configurations and presented in both memory and test displays. Typically, VSTM capacity decreases with increasing configuration complexity. We found that VSTM capacity for simple configurations was larger than for complex configurations in individuals reporting low AQ, whereas for individuals reporting high AQ, there were no significant differences between these configurations. These results suggest that the effects of spatial complexity on VSTM capacity could be observed in individuals reporting low AQ, but not in individuals reporting high AQ.
Voetnoten
1
A score of 32 or higher indicates a clinically significant level of autistic traits (Baron-Cohen et al. 2001). A score of 26 or higher indicates a clinically significant level of Asperger’s traits (Woodbury-Smith et al. 2005).
 
2
We used ESS 4 and ESS 8 as simple and complex configurations, respectively, in our present study. Although we used ESS 1, ESS 4, and ESS 8 as simple, medium, and complex configurations, respectively in the preliminary investigation (Takahashi and Gyoba 2012), we found no significant differences in VSTM capacity between ESS 1 and ESS 4 in either the High AQ or Low AQ groups.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Alvarez, G. A., & Cavanagh, P. (2004). The capacity of visual short-term memory is set both by total information load and by number of objects. Psychological Science, 15, 106–111. PubMedCrossRef Alvarez, G. A., & Cavanagh, P. (2004). The capacity of visual short-term memory is set both by total information load and by number of objects. Psychological Science, 15, 106–111. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Alvarez, G. A., & Oliva, A. (2007). The role of global layout in visual short-term memory. Visual Cognition, 15, 70–73. Alvarez, G. A., & Oliva, A. (2007). The role of global layout in visual short-term memory. Visual Cognition, 15, 70–73.
go back to reference American Psychological Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: APA. American Psychological Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: APA.
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 5–17. PubMedCrossRef Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 5–17. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bayliss, A. P., & Kritikos, A. (2011). Brief report: Perceptual load and the autism spectrum in typically developed individuals. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 1573–1578. PubMedCrossRef Bayliss, A. P., & Kritikos, A. (2011). Brief report: Perceptual load and the autism spectrum in typically developed individuals. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 1573–1578. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bayliss, A. P., & Tipper, S. P. (2005). Gaze and arrow cueing of attention reveals individual differences along the autism spectrum as a function of target context. British Journal of Psychology, 96, 95–114. PubMedCrossRef Bayliss, A. P., & Tipper, S. P. (2005). Gaze and arrow cueing of attention reveals individual differences along the autism spectrum as a function of target context. British Journal of Psychology, 96, 95–114. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Beversdorf, D. Q., Smith, B. W., Crucian, G. P., Anderson, J. M., Keillor, J. M., Barrett, A. M., et al. (2000). Increased discrimination of “false memories” in autism spectrum disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97, 8734–8737. CrossRef Beversdorf, D. Q., Smith, B. W., Crucian, G. P., Anderson, J. M., Keillor, J. M., Barrett, A. M., et al. (2000). Increased discrimination of “false memories” in autism spectrum disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97, 8734–8737. CrossRef
go back to reference Cowan, N. (2001). The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 24, 87–185. CrossRef Cowan, N. (2001). The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 24, 87–185. CrossRef
go back to reference Deruelle, C., Hubert, B., Santos, A., & Wicker, B. (2008). Negative emotion does not enhance recall skills in adults with autistic spectrum disorders. Autism Research, 1, 91–96. PubMedCrossRef Deruelle, C., Hubert, B., Santos, A., & Wicker, B. (2008). Negative emotion does not enhance recall skills in adults with autistic spectrum disorders. Autism Research, 1, 91–96. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Frith, U. (1989). Autism: Explaining the enigma. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell. Frith, U. (1989). Autism: Explaining the enigma. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
go back to reference Fugard, A. J. B., Stewart, M. E., & Stenning, K. (2011). Visual/verbal-analytic reasoning bias as a function of self-reported autistic-like traits. Autism, 15, 327–340. PubMedCrossRef Fugard, A. J. B., Stewart, M. E., & Stenning, K. (2011). Visual/verbal-analytic reasoning bias as a function of self-reported autistic-like traits. Autism, 15, 327–340. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Garner, W. R., & Clement, D. E. (1963). Goodness of pattern uncertainty. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 2, 446–452. CrossRef Garner, W. R., & Clement, D. E. (1963). Goodness of pattern uncertainty. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 2, 446–452. CrossRef
go back to reference Grinter, E. J., Maybery, M. T., Van Beck, P. L., Pellicano, E., Badcock, J. C., & Badcock, D. R. (2009a). Global visual processing and self-rated autistic-like traits. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1278–1290. PubMedCrossRef Grinter, E. J., Maybery, M. T., Van Beck, P. L., Pellicano, E., Badcock, J. C., & Badcock, D. R. (2009a). Global visual processing and self-rated autistic-like traits. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1278–1290. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Grinter, E. J., Van Beck, P. L., Maybery, M. T., & Badcock, D. R. (2009b). Brief report: Visuospatial analysis and self-rated autistic-like traits. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 670–677. PubMedCrossRef Grinter, E. J., Van Beck, P. L., Maybery, M. T., & Badcock, D. R. (2009b). Brief report: Visuospatial analysis and self-rated autistic-like traits. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 670–677. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hillier, A., Campbell, H., Keillor, J., Phillips, N., & Beversdorf, D. Q. (2007). Decreased false memory for visually presented shapes and symbols among adults on the autism spectrum. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 29, 610–616. PubMedCrossRef Hillier, A., Campbell, H., Keillor, J., Phillips, N., & Beversdorf, D. Q. (2007). Decreased false memory for visually presented shapes and symbols among adults on the autism spectrum. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 29, 610–616. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Howe, E. S. (1980). Effects of partial symmetry, exposure time, and backward masking on judged goodness and reproduction of visual patterns. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 32, 27–55. PubMedCrossRef Howe, E. S. (1980). Effects of partial symmetry, exposure time, and backward masking on judged goodness and reproduction of visual patterns. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 32, 27–55. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Jiang, Y. V., Olson, I. R., & Chun, M. M. (2000). Organization of visual short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 3, 683–702. CrossRef Jiang, Y. V., Olson, I. R., & Chun, M. M. (2000). Organization of visual short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 3, 683–702. CrossRef
go back to reference Lachmann, T., & van Leeuwen, C. (2010). Representational economy, not processing speed, determines preferred processing strategy. Acta Psychologica, 134, 290–298. PubMedCrossRef Lachmann, T., & van Leeuwen, C. (2010). Representational economy, not processing speed, determines preferred processing strategy. Acta Psychologica, 134, 290–298. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Luck, S. J., & Vogel, E. K. (1997). The capacity of visual working memory for features and conjunctions. Nature, 390, 279–281. PubMedCrossRef Luck, S. J., & Vogel, E. K. (1997). The capacity of visual working memory for features and conjunctions. Nature, 390, 279–281. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Öhman, A., Flykt, A., & Esteves, F. (2001). Emotion drives attention: Detecting the snake in the grass. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130, 466–478. CrossRef Öhman, A., Flykt, A., & Esteves, F. (2001). Emotion drives attention: Detecting the snake in the grass. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130, 466–478. CrossRef
go back to reference Ozonoff, S., & Strayer, D. L. (2001). Further evidence of intact working memory in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 257–263. PubMedCrossRef Ozonoff, S., & Strayer, D. L. (2001). Further evidence of intact working memory in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 257–263. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Plaisted, K., Dobler, V., Bell, S., & Davis, G. (2006). The microgenesis of global perception in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 107–116. PubMedCrossRef Plaisted, K., Dobler, V., Bell, S., & Davis, G. (2006). The microgenesis of global perception in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 107–116. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Plaisted, K., Saksida, L., Alcantara, J., & Weisblatt, E. (2003). Towards an understanding of the mechanisms of weak central coherence effects: experiments in visual configural learning and auditory perception. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B, 358, 375–386. CrossRef Plaisted, K., Saksida, L., Alcantara, J., & Weisblatt, E. (2003). Towards an understanding of the mechanisms of weak central coherence effects: experiments in visual configural learning and auditory perception. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B, 358, 375–386. CrossRef
go back to reference Rauschenberger, R., & Yantis, S. (2006). Perceptual encoding efficiency in visual search. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135, 116–131. CrossRef Rauschenberger, R., & Yantis, S. (2006). Perceptual encoding efficiency in visual search. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135, 116–131. CrossRef
go back to reference Steele, S. D., Minshew, N. J., Luna, B., & Sweeney, J. A. (2007). Spatial working memory deficits in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 605–612. PubMedCrossRef Steele, S. D., Minshew, N. J., Luna, B., & Sweeney, J. A. (2007). Spatial working memory deficits in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 605–612. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Szatmari, P., Paterson, A. D., Zwaigenbaum, L., et al. (2007). Mapping autism risk loci using genetic linkage and chromosomal rearrangements. Nature Genetics, 39, 319–328. PubMedCrossRef Szatmari, P., Paterson, A. D., Zwaigenbaum, L., et al. (2007). Mapping autism risk loci using genetic linkage and chromosomal rearrangements. Nature Genetics, 39, 319–328. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Takahashi, J., & Gyoba, J. (2012). Self-rated autistic-like traits and capacity of visual working memory. Psychological Reports, 110, 879–890. PubMedCrossRef Takahashi, J., & Gyoba, J. (2012). Self-rated autistic-like traits and capacity of visual working memory. Psychological Reports, 110, 879–890. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wakabayashi, A., Baron-Cohen, S., Uchiyama, T., Yoshida, Y., Tojo, Y., Kuroda, M., et al. (2007). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) children’s version in Japan: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 491–500. PubMedCrossRef Wakabayashi, A., Baron-Cohen, S., Uchiyama, T., Yoshida, Y., Tojo, Y., Kuroda, M., et al. (2007). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) children’s version in Japan: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 491–500. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wakabayashi, A., Tojo, Y., Baron-Cohen, S., & Wheelwright, S. (2004). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) Japanese version: Evidence from high-functioning clinical group and normal adults. The Japanese Journal of Psychology, 75, 78–84. (in Japanese with English abstract). CrossRef Wakabayashi, A., Tojo, Y., Baron-Cohen, S., & Wheelwright, S. (2004). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) Japanese version: Evidence from high-functioning clinical group and normal adults. The Japanese Journal of Psychology, 75, 78–84. (in Japanese with English abstract). CrossRef
go back to reference Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd ed.). San Antonio: The Psychological Corp. Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd ed.). San Antonio: The Psychological Corp.
go back to reference Williams, D. L., Goldstein, G., Carpenter, P. A., & Minshew, N. J. (2005). Verbal and spatial working memory in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 747–756. PubMedCrossRef Williams, D. L., Goldstein, G., Carpenter, P. A., & Minshew, N. J. (2005). Verbal and spatial working memory in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 747–756. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Woodbury-Smith, M. R., Robinson, J., Wheelwright, S., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2005). Screening adults for Asperger’s syndrome using the AQ: A preliminary study of its diagnostic validity in clinical practice. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 331–335. PubMedCrossRef Woodbury-Smith, M. R., Robinson, J., Wheelwright, S., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2005). Screening adults for Asperger’s syndrome using the AQ: A preliminary study of its diagnostic validity in clinical practice. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 331–335. PubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Brief Report: Effect of Spatial Complexity on Visual Short-Term Memory and Self-Reported Autistic-Like Traits in Typically Developed Individuals
Auteurs
Junichi Takahashi
Jiro Gyoba
Nozomi Yamawaki
Publicatiedatum
01-07-2013
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 7/2013
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1711-9